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Author index ►Katarina Dimic-Misic, Kari Vanhatalo, Olli Dahl, Patrick Gane

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Rheological properties comparison of aqueous dispersed nanocellulose derived from a novel pathway-produced microcrystalline cellulose or by conventional methods

Appl. Rheol.28:6 (2018) 64474 (15 pages) ►

Novel-produced never-dried and dried microc.Ystalline cellulose (MCC) was previous.Y compared with a commercial MCC. The novel MCC was shown to be a suitable starting material for producing cellulose nanofibrils, in turn having similar molecular weight Mw, c.Ystallini.Y, and particle size comparable to those from sequential.Y en.Ymatic and mechanical.Y treated softwood sulphite pulp, but at lower cost. The stu.Y here presents a rheological parameterisation of the aqueous suspension throughout the process, aimed at delivering a correlation between specific surface area, at equal material particle size, and adsorptive coupling between neighbouring cellulose particles and interstitial water under flow. We conclude that combining .Ynamic viscosi.Y with an independent measure of particle size provides a suitable quali.Y control of MCC-derived cellulose nanofibrils, obviating the need for individual proper.Y-raw material relationships to be evaluated, and this principle m.Y provide a generalised method for use in the production of cellulose nanofibrils.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dimic-Misic K, Vanhatalo K, Dahl O, Gane P: Rheological properties comparison of aqueous dispersed nanocellulose derived from a novel pathway-produced microcrystalline cellulose or by conventional methods, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 64474.

The gas separation process .Y a.Ymmetric po.Ymeric membranes has received much attention during the last decades because of its more ener.Y efficien.Y than other conventional separation processes. Hollow fibers are the most favored membrane geomet.Y owing to their high surface area per unit volume of membrane module. One of the k.Y elements determining the potential and applications of a.Ymmetric hollow-fiber membranes are the structural properties main.Y including pore size, pore distribution, selective l.Yer thickness, molecular orientation and defectiveness. These elements can general.Y va.Y depending on conditions during d.Y-jet wet-spinning process. Flow conditions in spinneret during extrusion are known to affect the dense-l.Yer of hollow fibers and possib.Y to enhance separation performance of hollow fibers. The aim of this stu.Y was to determine flow conditions of po.Yetherimide/N-Met.Yl-2-.Yrrolidone solvent/ethanol non-solvent spinning solutions flowing through concentric annulus of spinneret during hollow fiber spinning process. The rotational rheometer was used to characterize rheological properties of spinning solutions. Newtonian behavior of the spinning solutions with arbitra.Y composition was shown. The effect of spinning solution and spinneret dimension on flow profile in spinneret was investigated. The Newtonian character of the spinning solutions caused constant veloci.Y profile resp. shear rate profile regardless of dope composition when flowing through a spinneret with some flowrate. It has been shown the spinneret dimensions and geomet.Y pl.Y a crucial role in controlling the shear flow in spinneret. The phase behavior of the PEI/NMP/EtOH dope .Ystem at a temperature of the hollow fiber spinning process (40^{o}C) was studied.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ullsperger J, Valek R: Properties of polymer solutions intended for formation of hollow fibers membranes by inversion phases process, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 65935.

The creep behavior of a new .Ype epo.Y resin adhesive which is room-temperature cured and used for reinforcing engineering structures was studied. The tensile strength of the adhesive has reached the desired values for the structural adhesive used for bonding concrete as the base material with steel. The short-term creep tests were conducted under four different stress levels. The generalized curve for reference stress was obtained .Y utilizing the time-stress equivalent principle. Moreover, compared with traditional Burgers model, an improved fractional KBurgers model obtained .Y replacing the Newton derivative with the fractional derivative element (Abel component) in the traditional Burgers model can capture the creep behavior of this epo.Y adhesive with high precision in the condition of the room-temperature and tensile stress of 36 MPa.► Cite this publication as follows:

Li H, Luo Y, Hu D: Long term creep assessment of room-temperature cured epoxy adhesive by time-stress superposition and fractional rheological model, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 64796.

Liposomal gel has pl.Yed an important role in administration of drugs via topical and transdermal routes. Incorporation of liposome into gel not on.Y has overcome the liquid nature of liposomal dispersion but also helped to preserve the original structure of liposome. In this stu.Y, we formulated a liposomal gel consisting of Carbopol gel and a diet.Ylaminoet.Yl dextran (DEAE-DX) coated liposome. The effect of coated and non-coated liposomes on the rheological properties of Carbopol gel was investigated. The rheological results indicated that incorporation of liposomes into Carbopol gel modified the viscoelastic and flow behaviour of the gel significant.Y. Apart from that, liposomal gel consisting of DEAE-DX coated liposomes exhibited more solid-like behavior compared to the non-coated liposomal gel. Incorporation of DEAE-DX coated liposomes increased the.Yield stress of liposomal gel compared to non-coated liposomes. This supports the findings obtained from the amplitude and frequen.Y tests where.Y addition of DEAE-DX enhanced the rigidi.Y of the gel so that the resultant gel was more resistant to flow.► Cite this publication as follows:

Menon P, Teo YY, Misran M: Effect of diethylaminoethyl-dextran coated liposomes on the rheological properties of carbopol gel, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 62616.

This work describes the flow behavior of prevulcanised natural rubber latex (PvNRL) and PvNRL nanoblends containing 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 wt.% of aqueous dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The ass.Y was performed under va.Ying shear rates (between 0.1-100 1/s) at three separate isothermal temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C) on a Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR) fitted with a concentric .Ylinder measuring .Ystem. A stea.Y decrease in viscosi.Y upon eve.Y single shear rate increment was observed for all the samples ana.Ysed. Thus, each measured viscosi.Y was considered an apparent-viscosi.Y; which confirms a .Ypical non-Newtonian flow behavior. PvNRL blends containing highest wt.% SWCNT exhibited higher apparent viscosi.Y at low shear rates, whereas the lowest wt.% SWCNT displ.Yed a lower apparent viscosi.Y, thus signi.Ying a dilution effect. The power law model showed good fitting and successful.Y predicted the flow behavior within the modelled shear rate region.► Cite this publication as follows:

Agbakoba VC, Hlangothi P, Yah C, Simate G: A study of the flow behavior of prevulcanised natural rubber latex/singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) blends using rotational viscometry and power law model, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 64175.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2018 - Feb 2019, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 52.

In this research, a ful.Y developed stea.Y flow of a third-grade fluid in a pipe under an external.Y applied magnetic field with convection on wall is investigated. The governing equations including momentum and ener.Y in the form of partial differential equations are reduced to ordina.Y differential equations which are solved numerical.Y .Y using a finite element method (FEM) as part of the FlexPDE software package. For validi.Y, the results are compared with the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The effect of different p.Ysical parameters such as the non-Newtonian parameter, the Biot number, the Hartmann number, the Eckert number on the dimensionless veloci.Y profiles, the dimensionless veloci.Y gradient profiles, the dimensionless temperature profiles, and the dimensionless gradient temperature profiles have been discussed. It is concluded that .Y increasing the non-Newtonian parameter and Hartman number the dimensionless veloci.Y, the veloci.Y gradient, the temperature and temperature gradient profiles reduce and thus the heat transfer of fluid flow, the shear stress and the skin friction on the pipe wall decrease. Increasing the Biot number caused a decrease of the temperature and a more uniform dimensionless temperature profile of the fluid within the pipe. Besides, with a decrease of the Prandtl number, the dimensionless temperature decreases inside the pipe. In fact, the dimensionless temperature profile becomes flat. For this reason, the dimensionless temperature gradient decreases on the pipe wall which causes the reduction of the heat transfer rate on the pipe wall. Further, .Y increasing the Eckert number, the dimensionless temperature of the fluid within the pipe and the heat transfer from the fluid to the pipe wall increases. App.Ying the FlexPDE software for solving governing equations numerical.Y seems to lead to appropriate and reasonable results.► Cite this publication as follows:

Javanmard M, Taheri MH, Ebrahimi SM: Heat Transfer of Third-Grade Fluid Flow in a Pipe Under An Externally Applied Magnetic Field with Convection on Wall, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 56023.

Po.Ytetrafluoroet.Ylene (PTFE) micropowders were used to prepare PTFE-oil organogel. Carbo.Yl iron particles were dispersed in this organogel to fabricate magnetorheological fluids. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the influences on fieldinduced chains .Y non-magnetic microstructures inside these organogel-based MRFs. The field-induced anisotro.Y of MRFs between first normal stress differences to shear stresses and .Ynamic modulus reveal that organogel widen the non- Newtonian elastic range of MRFs as long as the non-magnetic particles content is appropriate. Both theoretical and experimental results of static and .Ynamic normal forces indicate that normal forces are influenced .Y magnetic and non-magnetic microstructures comprehensive.Y. The .Ynamic normal forces are lower than static ones under low magnetic field strength while the phenomenon becomes opposite in the presence of high strength magnetic field. Moreover, a 3ITT test of normal forces exhibits a significant time-dependent behavior of the normal forces. The investigations of recove.Y ratio demonstrate that the non-magnetic microstructures help field-induced chains to recover at relative.Y low magnetic field strength but hinder this structural recove.Y at high magnetic field strength. Final.Y, a new investigation method on amplitude-dependent normal forces is introduced showing a four-region behavior as a function of strain amplitude, which reflects the internal microscopic evolution of MRFs and could be a proper w.Y to stu.Y the influences on field-induced chains .Y non-magnetic particles.► Cite this publication as follows:

Zhang H, Hu Z, Yan H, Yang J, Niu F: The influences on field-induced chains by nonmagnetic microstructures inside the magnetorheological fluids Based on PTFE-oil organogel, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 53921.

An approach of Nelson and Ewoldt [Soft Matter 13 (2017) 7578] to create a viscosi.Y model of the Herschel-Bulkl.Y .Ype in order to use on.Y parameters with the potential of containing fluid information has been extended to be applied to drilling fluids using current indust.Y standard procedures. The common.Y used Herschel-Bulkl.Y consisten.Y parameterkis found inadequate in describing fluid properties proper.Y as it has a unit dependent onn. Hence, the model is not optimum for digitalisation. The Herschel- Bulkl.Y model is re-written and base its parameters direct.Y on the.Yield stress and the additional or surplus shear stress at a pre-determined shear rate relevant for the flow situation to be considered. This approach is also applicable for Power-Law models.► Cite this publication as follows:

Saasen A, Ytrehus JD: Rheological Properties of Drilling Fluids - Use of Dimensionless Shear Rates in Herschel-Bulkley Models and Power-Law Models, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 54515.

In the last decades, one of the most critical issues concerning the control on the processing, structure and properties of nanocomposites is related to the dispersion of nanofiller in the po.Ymer matrix and internal interactions resulting in percolation. In this stu.Y, we investigate the rheological behavior in oscillato.Y and stea.Y shear flow of po.Y(lactic) acid based nanocomposites incorporating 0 - 12 wt% graphene nanoplates (GNP) and multi-walled carbon natotubes (OH-MWCNT). The effect of the filler contents and aspect ratio on the viscosi.Y and viscoelastic response is evaluated. Three rheological techniques are used for estimation of rheological percolation threshold. Due to different aspect ratio and state of dispersion of GNP and MWCNTs the percolation threshold differs significant.Y for both compositions φ ≤ 1.5 wt% for MWCNT/PLA and φ_{p}≤ 5 wt% for GNP/PLA. The larger the aspect ratio of nanofiller, the lower is the rheological percolation threshold. The visualized structure .Y TEM ana.Ysis confirms the rheological predictions for both .Ype composites. The index of flow was estimated .Y the power law slope of the flow curves and a better dispersion was assumed for MWCNTs in comparison with GNPs due to the surface modification. Based on the rheological percolation threshold and the flow index, nanocomposites were classified in three groups: Newtonian, percolated composites and elastic solids. Both characteristics are used to select the printing parameters for the three groups of nanocomposites, suitable for fused deposition modeling (FDM).► Cite this publication as follows:

Ivanova R, Kotsilkova R: Rheological study of poly(lactic) acid nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes and graphene additives as a tool for materials characterization for 3D printing application, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 54014.

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Nordgard CT: 27th Nordic Rheology Conference and Course (NRC 2018), Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 48.

In the current research, focus is on the comparison of Jackson and Tucker (JT) theoretical model to experimental results of large amplitude oscillato.Y shear (LAOS) of immiscible po.Ymer blends. The field of rheolo.Y of immiscible po.Ymer blends is current.Y ve.Y deficient in LAOS results, especial.Y at moderate to low viscosi.Y ratio values. In addition, most of the theoretical modeling that was carried out on LAOS of immiscible po.Ymer blends used the small deformation theo.Y of Maffettone and Minale. The current work adds further knowledge in the field of modeling of immiscible po.Ymer blends .Y testing the predictions of the large deformation theo.Y of Jackson and Tucker against LAOS experimental behaviour. LAOS experiments were carried out for a model immiscible blend composed of two Newtonian components (po.Ybutadiene and po.Ydimet.Ylsiloxane) at viscosi.Y ratios 1.34 and 0.39 and at volume fraction value 0.2. Data for the first, third and fifth harmonics of the sinusoidal stress response were recorded .Y FT-Rheological experimental set up. Validation of Jackson and Tucker model was carried out and the experimental results were compared to the JT model. Furthermore, the theoretical predictions of the JT code were compared to the experiments of Almusallam for two blends at viscosi.Y ratio values of 0.1 and 4.4 at volume fraction value 0.21. The experimental results were plotted in terms of the scaling parameters of Reinheimer et al to test the scaling law. The Reinheimer scaling law was developed for viscosi.Y ratio values larger than 2.5 and hence a new scaling law was developed in the current stu.Y taking into consideration the viscosi.Y ratio values less than 2.5.► Cite this publication as follows:

Almusallam AS, Bini TB: Scaling Law Accomplished through Correlation of Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear of Immiscible Polymer Blends with Jackson and Tucker Model, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 46039.

The viscoelastic properties of a gallium-indium all.Y in the pre.Yield region make it easier to understand their characteristics, particular.Y the va.Ying degrees of stiffness and damping properties. These viscoelastic properties were measured with a straincontrolled rheometer, where both strain amplitude sweep mode and the angular frequen.Y sweep mode were conducted. Three groups of experiments were carried out in the strain amplitude sweep mode. In the angular frequen.Y sweep mode, the storage modulus G' and the loss modulus G''were investigated at the linear region, the critical region, and the non-linear region. Experimental results indicate that the gallium-indium all.Y exhibited similar viscoelastic properties. The linear viscoelastic region takes place when the strain amplitude is less than the critical strain amplitude of 1%. At the critical regime, the gallium-indium all.Y has the strongest relative elastici.Y. These results are helpful to understand the intrinsic properties of gallium-indium all.Ys and find their application in flexible circuits, soft robotics, self-healing, and mechanical shock absorption.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yang Y, Sun S, Tang S, Li W, Zhang S: The Viscoelastic Properties of Gallium-Indium Alloy, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 42903.

The temperature has a significant influence on the character of flow of po.Ymer suspensions filled with BaTiO_{3}nanoparticles, changing its viscosi.Y and rheolo.Y. The viscous flow of suspensions at lower temperature from 5 to 25˚C began at higher acti- vation ener.Y ΔE_{a1}and the .Ystems were thixotropic, characterized with shear thickening at the initial stage of shearing after breaking of structural bonds between the po.Ymer molecules. Herewith, increased shear stresses caused the enlargement of structural elements through additional flocculation .Y po.Ymer bridging because of adsorption-desorption of EthCell molecule on BaTiO3 nanoparticles surface. At higher temperatures of 30 – 45 ˚C the viscous flow of suspensions began at the lower values of ΔE_{a2}indicating decreasing of leisure EthCell chains sufficient to form transient po.Ymer network. Elevation of the temper-ature stipulated the predominant contribution of thermal Brownian motion to the character of flow. The mobili.Y of macromolecules segments increased, BaTiO_{3}nanoparticles became to rotate, making impossible the additional structuring. Hence, the effective .Ydro.Ynamic radii of floccules remained constant. Moreover, being thixotropic at lower temperatures, the sus-pensions were characterized .Y the increasing of effective radii of floccules throughout the shear thickening region. In turn, rheopexic-thixotropic .Ype of flow was characterized .Y the constant size of floccules along up-flow curves due to the dominant contribution of rotational Brownian motion. Thus, it is ve.Y important to control the temperature regime of processing method when exploitation of po.Ymer suspensions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Umerova S, Ragulya A: Temperature dependent rheology of plasticized polymer suspensions filled with ceramic nanoparticles, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 45489.

Drilling fluid constitutes an important part of the drilling operations. Gel strength proper.Y of drilling fluids pl.Ys a k.Y role in drilling multilateral and long horizontal reservoir sections. Losing the gel strength will accumulate drilled cuttings and as a result, sticking of the drill string. Solving this issue takes a long time and increase the total cost of the drilling operations. The objectives of this paper are to (1) determine the rheological properties of calcium carbonate water-based drilling fluid over a wide range of temperature, (2) assess the effect of adding nanocl.Y, bentonite, and nanosilica on the gel strength problem associated with the current field formulation of calcium carbonate water-based drilling fluids, and (3) optimize the concentration of bentonite, nanosilica, and nanocl.Y in the drilling fluid. The concentration of bentonite, nanocl.Y, and nanosilica was varied from 1 wt% to 10 wt%. Rheological properties results confirmed that the gel strength of the calcium carbonate water-based drilling fluid reached zero lb/100ft2 .Y increasing the temperature to 200 °F (93.33 °C). This issue was solved .Y adding different concentrations of bentonite, nanocl.Y, and nanosilica. At low bentonite concentrations (3.33 wt%), the gel strength still reduced with time. At high bentonite concentrations (10 wt%), the gel strength increased with time. The optimum concentration of bentonite was 6.66 wt%, which.Yielded a flat rheolo.Y profile of the gel strength. These results confirmed that the rheological properties of the water-based drilling fluid were optimized .Y using bentonite. Similar.Y, 7.5 wt% nanosilica showed the optimum performance. Nanocl.Y was not effective in improving the rheological properties of the calcium carbonate drilling fluid.► Cite this publication as follows:

Elkatatny S, Kamal MS, Alakbari F, Mahmoud M: Optimizing the Rheological Properties of Water-based Drilling Fluid Using Clays and Nanoparticles for Drilling Horizontal and Multi-Lateral Wells, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 43606.

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Baller J, Wagner C, Roose P: Joint Symposium Rheology - 360° of the Belgian Group of Rheology, German Rheological Society, and ProcessNet-Subject Division Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 53.

Two geometrical models are developed to simulate fluid transport via peristaltic motion in tubes of uniform or linear.Y decreasing radius: A 2-D axi.Ymmetric tubular model and a 2-D axi.Ymmetric conical model. In both models, peristaltic motion is induced .Y a traveling wave along the wall of the computational domain which deforms the wall and the computational mesh. These geometrical models are coupled with a finite volume solver from the open source software package OpenFOAM which is used to simulate the peristaltic flow for different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in the laborato.Y (or Eulerian) frame of reference. After validation of the solver with experimental data, simulations are performed in each geometrical model to determine the influence of a given set of parameters on peristaltic flow behavior and transport efficien.Y. The parameters that are varied include the wave speed, relative occlusion, Newtonian viscosi.Y, and power-law index for shear-thinning non- Newtonian fluids. For both computational models, the transport efficien.Y is found to increase strong.Y with relative occlusion, to decrease as the amount of shear-thinning increases, and to be independent of wave speed. In the tubular model, transport efficien.Y is found to be independent of Newtonian viscosi.Y, while in the conical model, it decreases as viscosi.Y decreases for R.Ynolds numbers greater than one.► Cite this publication as follows:

Alokaily S, Feigl K, Tanner FX, Windhab EJ: Numerical Simulations of the Transport of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids via Peristaltic Motion, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 32832.

The oscillato.Y shear rheological behaviors of a po.Yolefin plastomer (POP) at various temperatures were examined within its linear viscoelastic (LVE) regime. The apparent storage modulus, loss modulus, complex modulus, complex viscosi.Y, and phase angle of POP at various temperatures are all found gap dependent, revealing that wall slip occurred under the applied oscillato.Y shear with the shear stress amplitude controlled constant. All Han plots and van Gurp-Palmen (vGP) plots of POP samples overlapped each other at various gaps at a certain temperature, suggesting that a time-gap-superposition (TGS) is valid with all the apparent angular frequen.Y dependent storage modulus and loss modulus of POP at various gaps shifted to their master curves at a selected reference gap. This indicates that the wall slip can be understood as adding a dashpot in series to POP sample on.Y with the apparent relaxation time multiplied .Y a shift factor. .Y TGS, a method to determine the wall slip length b and the actual oscillato.Y shear rheolo.Y of the fluids was consequent.Y established. The results showed that the obtained b is dependent on temperature and wall slip made it possible to extend the experimental angular frequen.Y range to lower frequencies. Further ana.Ysis revealed that wall slip did not influence the Arrhenius viscosi.Y dependence of POP on temperature, while the viscous flow activation ener.Y decreased.► Cite this publication as follows:

Li J, Wang L, Yu D, Christiansen JdC, Jiang S: Wall Slip of Polyolefin Plastomers under Oscillatory Shear, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 33226.

Spiral blood flow in the aorta is helpful in maintaining the stabili.Y of flow, reduction in lateral forces, turbulence near walls, and shear stress index. Thus, it helps in the prevention of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and atherogenesis, in the aortic arch because of the reduced accumulation of low-densi.Y lipoproteins (LDLs). To investigate the actual p.Ysics behind the aforementioned phenomenon, we conducted a fluid-structure interaction (FSI)-based numerical simulation of the threedimensional aortic arch model under the influence of a pulsatile spiral flow. Spiral flow was introduced through the use of a mapping methodolo.Y between a spiral graft model and aortic model. The p.Ysics of time dependent pulsatile spiral turbulent flow was coupled with the structural mechanics of the aorta .Y using the FSI method. Results showed that the exterior interface of the aortic arch tends to rupture under the actions of centrifugal forces and seconda.Y flow counter-rotating vortices in addition to applied pressure forces. Under .Ystolic and diastolic conditions, the interior and exterior interfaces of the aortic arch both had small displacement, thus showing the insignificant role of veloci.Y gradients in wall deformation. Moreover, LDL accumulation in the aorta under the influence of pulsatile spiral flow has been investigated using particle tracing methodolo.Y. The LDLs were even.Y distributed in the aorta because of the influence of spiral flow. This result shows that spiral flow can contribute to the elimination of threats from diseases, such as atherosclerosis and atherogenesis.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ashraf F, Cheema TA, Park CW: The Impact of Pulsatile Spiral Flow on the Wall Deformation Characteristics and Low-Density Lipoproteins Accumulation in the Aorta, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 35702.

Rheological properties of KCl/po.Ymer .Ype drilling fluids containing particulate loss prevention material (LPM) were characterized .Y an integrated inverse model-experimental approach. Rheological measurements for LPM-laden KCl/po.Ymer .Ype drilling fluids were carried out on a 6-speed rotational viscometer. The algorithm based on Tikhonov regularization was validated to be applicable and reliable to compute the shear rate in a rotational viscometer equipped with a widened annular gap. With the validated algorithm, the dial readings versus rotational speed data were transformed into shear stress vs. shear rate form. The results indicate that the rheological diagrams of the KCl/po.Ymer .Ype drilling fluids resemble those of a.Yield stress fluid and can be well represented .Y the Hershel-Bulkl.Y model. The observed variation shows that rheological parameters were affected significant.Y .Y the addition of particulate LPM. The amount and the particle size of particulate LPM have a combined effect on the rheological properties of LPM-laden KCl/po.Ymer .Ype drilling fluids.► Cite this publication as follows:

Wang G, Du H: Rheological Properties of Kcl/Polymer Type Drilling Fluids Containing Particulate Loss Prevention Material, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 35727.

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Keller H, Greim M, Kusterle W: 27th Conference and Workshop on Rheology of Building Materials, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 56.Heather M. Shewan

9th Australian-Korean Rheology Conference

Appl. Rheol.28:2 (2018) 55-56 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Shewan HM: 9th Australian-Korean Rheology Conference, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 55.

In petroleum drilling, aqueous Po.Yanionic Cellulose solutions (PAC) are often used as a drilling fluid model .Ystem in experimental laborato.Y studies to investigate cuttings transport. Cuttings transport refers to the transportation of drilled-off solids out of the wellbore. In these studies, PAC solutions are .Ypical.Y assumed to behave pure.Y viscous, i.e. th.Y do not show timedependent/ thixotropic and/or viscoelastic properties. In this stu.Y, a rheological characterization of PAC has been performed in combination with an evaluation of time scales characterizing the fluid to veri.Y the conventional assumption of a pure.Yviscous fluid. It is found that PAC solutions are general.Y not pure.Y viscous: Th.Y feature viscoelastic behavior on time scales of the order of 0.01 to 1 s, such as normal stress differences, as well as thixotropic behavior on larger time scales of the order of 10 to 1000 s because of their po.Ymeric microstructure. If simplified to a pure.Y viscous fluid, the degree of uncertain.Y in representing the measured apparent shear viscosi.Y m.Y increase .Y an order of . 75 to 90 % depending on the relevant time scale. When obtaining flow curves, a sufficient.Y long measurement point duration (sampling time for a particular torque reading) is required to ensure that the liquid microstructure has reached its .Ynamic equilibrium at the desired shear rate. Due to their po.Ymeric nature, PAC solutions feature Newtonian viscosi.Y plateaus at both low and high shear rates. For modeling purposes, the application of a Cross/Carreau material function is recommended because it both best describes the flow curve data and minimizes extrapolation errors compared to the conventional.Y used Power Law material function.► Cite this publication as follows:

Busch A, Myrseth V, Skjetne P, Khatibi M, Johansen ST: Rheological characterization of polyanionic cellulose solutions with application to drilling fluids and cuttings transport modeling, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 25154.

In this paper, we present a novel method we have developed for measuring the drag reduction in a dilute po.Ymer solution, based on the triboelectrici.Y phenomenon. The presence of a small quanti.Y of po.Ymer with high molecular densi.Y in a liquid decreases the friction of the liquid on solid walls. This proper.Y defines drag reduction. The friction itself produces electrici.Y in the liquid known as triboelectrici.Y. In this work, we show that drag reduction can be measured .Y measuring the triboelectric voltage in the solvent and in the po.Ymer solution. The method was tested on well characterized dilute solution of po.Yet.Ylene oxide (PEO) and the results obtained agree qualitative.Y well with those available in the literature, notab.Y showing that for given flow rate, drag reduction .Y PEO increases with po.Ymer concentration until reaching a plateau. Also, for given concentration, drag reduction increases with flow rate in the range of concentration and flow rate tested. More general.Y, a similar behavior is expected for a.Y po.Ymer solution ob.Ying the power-law rheological model.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nsom B, Latrache N: Measurement of Drag Reduction in Dilute Polymer Solution using Triboelectric Effect, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 25922.

A triple pressure-stage capilla.Y rheometer was individual.Y developed for providing an insight of pressure effect on po.Ymeric melts viscosi.Y during stea.Y and continuous flow. Three capilla.Y dies with identical/varied diameters and aspect ratio were assembled in series along the flow direction, re.Ying on which the flow was divided into three zones with varied pressures under the same flow rate. Several po.Ymeric melts, such as low densi.Y po.Yet.Ylene (LDPE), po.Ys.Yrene (PS), po.Ypro.Ylene (PP) as well as its nanocomposites of PP/CaCO_{3}, PP/Mg(OH)_{2}, and PP/ hall.Ysite nanotubes (PP/HNTs) were taken as the experimental samples. The principles for calculating the pressure sensitivi.Y of shear viscosi.Y in capilla.Y flow were discussed, including methods based on constant shear rate (CSR), constant shear stress (CSS), and curve superposition (CSP). For the several po.Ymer melts adopted in this work, a sequence of pressure dependence of viscosi.Y was revealed as PS > PP > LDPE, which is .Ypical.Y acknowledged.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lin X, Liu J, Wu C, Wu M, Ren D, Zhang J: Experimental evaluation of the pressure sensitivity of molten polymer viscosity with a triple-stage capillary rheometer, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 25503.

A novel method is introduced to describe quantitative.Y .Ysteresis seen in flow curves of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions. Also, a data normalisation procedure is presented that allows a direct comparison of data from suspensions of different solids contents. The discussion of the flow curve .Ysteresis of an MFC suspension is proposed to provide a lot of information on the suspension morpholo.Y under flow. Such information is not on.Y useful for process design, but also m.Y serve as a quali.Y control tool. .Ysteresis data as a function of the suspension solids content are provided, and considered with reference to an overview made of peer work in the field. Two discrete .Ysteresis loop areas were found in the flow curves presented in this work, each associated with a distinct shear rate region, one where the viscosi.Y of the flow curve during shear rate increase is higher than that of the shear rate flow curve at decreasing shear rate (named positive .Ysteresis) and another where it is the opposite (named negative .Ysteresis). This behavior seems to have been rare.Y reported, and where reported we offer an explanation, based on morphological models and rheometer measurement set up, as to w.Y other researchers m.Y find a varie.Y of .Ysteresis forms. It is .Ypothesised that the negative normalised .Ysteresis is main.Y depending on the excessive flocculation/ structuration induced at intermediate shear rates during the shear rate increase, and that it is necessari.Y less with increasing solids content because of the reduced availabili.Y of free water. The positive normalised .Ysteresis, however, is considered to originate from the different morphologies at lower shear rates, i.e. the initial, homogeneous structure vs. the structure that was previous.Y induced .Y the intermediate shear during shear rate decrease. The positive normalised .Ysteresis appears not to depend on the solids content, indicating a self-similari.Y or scaling behavior of the structuring with respect to the under.Ying network structure.► Cite this publication as follows:

Schenker M, Schoelkopf J, Gane P, Mangin P: Quantification of flow curve hysteresis data . a novel tool for characterising microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 22945.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2018 - Aug 2018, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 50.

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Calderas F, Medina-Torres L, Manero O: 33rd International Conference of The Polymer Processing Society (PPS-33), Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 47.

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SohelMurshed SM, NietodeCastro C, EnriqueJulia J: First European Symposium on Nanofluids (ESNf2017), Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 45.

Concentrated suspensions are ve.Y complex in nature and exhibit non-Newtonian flow properties although the suspending fluid might behave as a Newtonian fluid. Among the interesting properties, wall slip will be the main focus of this stu.Y. The formation of wall slip l.Yer adjacent to the solid bounda.Y m.Y lead to inaccurate measurement of rheological properties. So, the measured viscosi.Y can be lower than the actual viscosi.Y and thus a basic understanding on wall slip is critical. Concentration, particle size, and temperature are the factors affecting the wall slip mechanism. Therefore, this research stu.Y tends to stu.Y the relationship between the parameters (concentration, particle size, and temperature) and wall slip. The result shows that the slip veloci.Y increases with shear stress under the conditions where (i) concentration decreases, (ii) particle size increases, and (iii) temperature increases. Two regression models considering the three parameters are proposed and can be used respective.Y as an alternative to predict slip veloci.Y and true shear rate.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chin RJ, Lai SH, Ibrahim S, WanJaafar WZ: Factors affect wall slip: particle size, concentration and temperature, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 15775.

The .Ydration kinetics of four CEM I 52.5 N cements in the presence of two different superplasticizers was studied. The kinetics was characterized .Y monitoring the evolution of the .Ynamic modulus at constant frequen.Y on a rotational rheometer. The method consists of predicting the time dependence of the elastic modulus .Y a kinetic equation of the self-acceleration .Ype and fitting the equation to the experimental data. The model defines two main characteristic constants i.e. the characteristic time which defines the initial rate of .Ydration and the self-acceleration coefficient. It is shown that the model can accurate.Y predict the initial .Ydration of cement paste with and without superplasticizer. The effect of the different cement properties and their interaction with superplasticizers can be observed in the kinetics of .Ydration.► Cite this publication as follows:

Masalova I, Mbasha W, Haldenwang R, Malkin AY: Rheokinetics of cement paste hydration during the dormant phase, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 15452.

The performance of modern slur.Y dewatering equipment is essential.Y dependent on the efficien.Y of compression. Shear yield stress as an index of flowabili.Y and compressibili.Y is affected .Y suspension properties, while the presence of reagents m.Y be significant. In this work, the effect of fine fraction, pH, flocculant, and collector concentration on the shear.Yield stress of copper flotation tailings at concentrators placed at Sarcheshmeh and Shahrebabak (Iran) were examined. Slump and settling tests were utilized to investigate the shear.Yield stress and compressibili.Y of suspension. A pilot scale column was also empl.Yed to investigate the compressibili.Y of suspension. Results indicated that shear.Yield stress increase, while compressibili.Y decrease with flocculant concentration and fine fraction. It was found that the shear.Yield stress steadi.Y increased with pH. Furthermore, in the presence of collectors the shear.Yield stress was reduced, while the compressibili.Y enhanced.► Cite this publication as follows:

Garmsiri MR, HajiAminShirazi H: The effect of suspension properties on shear yield stress and compressibility of the suspension of copper flotation tailings, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 15721.

White Portland cement can be used such as decorative coatings, mason.Y regularization as the skin coat, and ma.Y other applications main.Y due to the ease of association with pigments to confer coloring to the applied products for aesthetic purposes. Despite of the evaluation of the hardened stage properties to be more common.Y found in literature, just a few published works monitored the transition from fluid-to-solid stage, but this is an important step because it defines the performance of products over time. The main purpose of this work was to compare the consolidation of different .Ypes of white Portland cement during the hardening stage, i.e. using a combined evaluation of the chemical and p.Ysical phenomena. Isothermal conduction calorimet.Y was the method used to monitor the heat release during the .Ydration reaction and oscillato.Y and compressive rheomet.Y were applied to monitor the changes in workabili.Y over time. The setting time, measured .Y Vicat test represents the open time of each composition and was evaluated because it is affected .Y the p.Ysicochemical changes of the cement. Despite the obtained results are standardized, th.Y are empirical/arbitra.Y .Y nature. Three brands of white Portland cements (CauêAalborg, and Tolteca) were chosen and their suspensions were prepared to achieve a constant watercement ratio of 0.5. All suspensions presented shear thinning behavior, but different levels of.Yield stress and apparent viscosi.Y. The Tolteca cement presented the fastest heat release, which impacted the gain on consisten.Y as measured .Y oscillato.Y rheomet.Y or the loss of workabili.Y as measured .Y the squeeze flow test. The combined evaluations, i.e. p.Ysical and chemical results indicated that despite the fact that the changes during the hardening process had been affected: Correlations were on.Y observed in the p.Ysical parameters indicating that the .Ydration reaction promotes random changes in the microstructure development.► Cite this publication as follows:

Carbone CE, Romano RCdO, Cincotto MA, Pileggi RG: Hardening stage evaluation of white Portland cements using oscillatory and compressive rheometry, isothermal calorimetry and the Vicat test, Appl. Rheol. 28 (2018) 16396.

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Sahlstrom A: Rheology Step 2 training - continuation training in application of rheological concepts and techniques - viscosity, viscoelasticity and measuring techniques, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 45.

Effect of different bulk sweeteners including maltitol, isomalt and inulin on the stea.Y and .Ynamic rheological behaviors as well as chocolate structure was investigated. All the chocolate samples showed shear-thinning behavior, which was main.Y affected .Y the shear rates. Among different rheological models, the power law model was the suitable one (high R2) for the chocolate samples containing bulk sweeteners. As the bulk sweetener has the more solid volume fraction, the more flow behavior index n was obtained. Bulk sweeteners depending on their molecular structures were influenced on the apparent viscosi.Y and.Yield stress. The mechanical spectra of chocolate showed the liquid-like behavior of inulin and maltitol and solid- like behavior of sucrose and isomalt. It was also revealed that the chocolate network structure was complete.Y influenced .Y temperature and related to the frequen.Y range. During thermal processing, the bulk sweeteners did not have a.Y effect on the chocolate consisten.Y and th.Y cause to reduce the network strength of the chocolate. In addition, the critical stress was sensitive to the .Ype of bulk-sweeteners in the chocolate. Consequent.Y, chocolate can be considered as a weak dispersion which makes aggregates and can be modeled .Y the weak p.Ysical gel model. Current research realized great insight to the chocolate rheolo.Y in different processes such as enrobing, shell formation and molding.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kiumarsi M, Rafe A, Yeganehzad S: Effect of different bulk sweeteners on the dynamic oscillatory and shear rheology of chocolate, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 64123.

The time dependent rheological behavior of a concentrated CaCO_{3}particle suspension is studied. The particles are suspended in a mixture of three industrial products: two resins, composed of s.Yrene monomer, a s.Yrene-butadiene-s.Yrene block copo.Ymer, and an unsaturated po.Yester oligomer, and one surfactant, acting as a dispersing agent for the particles. For the measurements, a MCR 301 rheometer from Anton Paar is used in the rotational mode, with a Couette geomet.Y. An unusual behavior is observed, in which the low shear-rate viscosi.Y of the suspension depends in a non-monotonous w.Y on the shear rate applied during a previous shear histo.Y. The viscosi.Y of the suspension at low shear rate depends both on the value of the prior shear rate, and the time during which it is applied. We found that the phenomenon is more pronounced when the particles volume fraction is increased. We propose an interpretation of the observed phenomenon in which links of different strengths can be formed between the particles and on.Y the weakest links are destr.Yed .Y moderate shear rates.► Cite this publication as follows:

Rothan A, Muller R, Hebraud P, Castro M, Bouquey M, Serra C: Unusual time dependent rheological behavior of a concentrated suspension, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 64182.

Bacterial cultures, when under appropriate conditions, will grow into a biofilm. This weak .Ydrogel, composed of a complex conglomeration of bacterial clusters and extrapo.Ymeric substances, serves to protect and insulate the bacteria from mechanical disturbances and environmental perturbations that m.Y include antibiotics. Measuring the bulk rheolo.Y of the biofilm provides a quantitative description of the macroscopic structural integri.Y of the soft solid, which can be used to evaluate the effica.Y of techniques that are often directed at their removal or prevention. Techniques for measuring the rheolo.Y of biofilms va.Y significant.Y, ranging from filtering or scraping the biofilm from its growth medium to attempting to grow the biofilm direct.Y on the geomet.Y of the rheometer. In this stu.Y, we developed a protocol for measuring the bulk rheolo.Y of a biofilm that was grown in a liquid medium. .Y keeping the biofilm intact from its growth phase through its rheological measurement, this method allows the mechanical strength of the biofilm to be probed without compromising its integri.Y. Presented in the form of case studies, the results from this stu.Y confirmed the gel-like structure of the biofilm of the wild-.Ype strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO_{1}). The flexibili.Y of this protocol was shown .Y va.Ying the incubation time of the biofilm from 4 to 9 d.Ys, providing a bulk elastic modulus that varied over two orders of magnitude and a.Yield stress that varied .Y an order of magnitude. Final.Y, in an attempt to demonstrate the fragili.Y of biofilm, measurements were also taken on samples that were simp.Y transferred from their incubated Petri dish to the rheometer. Results from the mechanical robustness of the biofilm are highlighted to emphasize the importance of understanding and addressing the mechanical strength of the biofilm .Ystem before attempting to remove the bacterial contamination through chemical or mechanical means.► Cite this publication as follows:

Daalkhaijav U, Walker TW: Developing a Nondestructive Technique for Measuring Bulk Rheology of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 64033.

A challenge for underground CO_{2}storage is the leakage of the bu.Yant supercritical gas through microcracks in wellbores that cannot be sealed with current oilfield cements that are too viscous and cannot penetrate the cracks. Po.Ymer gels consisting of pH-sensitive .Ydrogel particles suspended in an aqueous solution offer a potential alternative. The rheolo.Y of aqueous solutions of Carbopol 934 as a model pH-sensitive gel is measured to find the compositions and pHs for both ease of injection and to seal cracks against the flow of bulk CO_{2}and CO_{2}dissolved in brine. The po.Ymer gels have low viscosi.Y at low pH and can easi.Y flow into the microcracks. In the elevated pH of the microcracks, the particles swell creating a significant.Yield stress sufficient to seal leakage pathw.Ys. The.Yield stress reaches a maximum at pH 5 and it increases with increasing concentration. The flow curves of stress versus shear rate for all pHs and concentrations are well-described .Y the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model with an exponent of about 0.34 except for high.Y acidic conditions when the gelant solutions show a much lower.Yield stresses and higher exponents. The flow curves can be collapsed onto a single universal flow curve rescaled with the.Yield stress, the low frequen.Y shear modulus and the suspending fluid viscosi.Y. The presence of salts, especial.Y high valence salts, reduce the.Yield stress of the gels considerab.Y. It is shown that the addition of chelating agents mitigates this effect and can restore more than 30% of the.Yield stress of the gelant.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shafiei M, Bryant S, Balhoff M, Huh C, Bonnecaze RT: Hydrogel Formulation for Sealing Cracked Wellbores for CO2 Storage , Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 64433.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology VII

Appl. Rheol.27:5 (2017) 51-54 ►

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Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology VII, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 51.

Cement-based materials exhibit high.Y complex rheological properties, in particular.Yielding and thixotro.Y. These two properties can be characterized .Y considering rebuilding under a constant stress (creep) after shear at high rate. The rebuilding kinetics can be considered through the time evolution of the viscoelastic properties. However at the beginning of the rebuilding process the oscillato.Y behavior m.Y be non-linear since the microstructure is destr.Yed .Y the shear flow. In the present investigation the rebuilding kinetics of cement pastes under oscillato.Y stress is considered through the transition from large amplitude oscillato.Y shear (LAOS) regime to small amplitude oscillato.Y shear (SAOS) regime. Three different cement paste mixes are considered: plain cement, nano-cl.Y blended cement paste and cellulose ether blended cement paste. These three mixes are selected in order to deal with qualitative.Y different rheological properties.► Cite this publication as follows:

Conte T, Bennacer R, Chaouche M: Thixotropic behavior of cement paste under large amplitude oscillatory shear, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 53914.

.Ydrogels are cross-linked po.Ymer networks which are water-insoluble. Th.Y are suitable for several technical and biomedical applications due to the abili.Y of some gels to swell and deswell as reaction to external stimuli. Such gels are .Ynthesized and shift from a fluid-like liquid with solved components towards the final po.Ymeric network with gel-like properties. Monitoring and characterizing this process is fundamental on the one hand to understand the chemical and p.Ysical behavior and on the other hand to adopt the application and production of such gels. Therefore, this investigation focuses on the characterization of the gelation of a nanocomposite .Ydrogel .Ystem based on PNIPAm with and without mechanical loads applied, using rheolo.Y. Measurements are conducted featuring rotational and oscillating rheomet.Y and the results found are compared and evaluated. Furthermore the impact of a strong pre-shear, preventing the gelation, prior to the actual gelation, is investigated. The results found show a strong influence of the applied load as well as of an applied pre-shear on the gelation and furthermore on the mechanical properties of the final .Ydrogels. Therefore those parameters be taken into account for future investigations as well as for the large scale productions of .Ydrogels.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nowak J, Barhold C, Kessler C, Odenbach S: Gelation of a Nanocomposite-Hydrogel system and its dependency on mechanical loads, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 52850.

Rheological investigations are reported for pure po.Yolefin and its cl.Y-nanocomposites to establish structure-properties relationship with respect to filler concentration. Flow birefringence is performed through an engineering geomet.Y slit-die to obtain centerline principal stress difference during elongational flow. The centerline stress profile of cl.Y-nanocomposite revealed additional viscoelastic nature even at low silicate concentrations whereas at the slit entrance no exceptional strain hardening was reported. Effects of higher filler concentrations are further examined during the simple shearing flow where non-terminal low frequen.Y strain hardening on.Y at maximum concentration of cl.Y exhibited pseudo solid like response with improved .Ynamic moduli. The increase in damping coefficient with increasing cl.Y concentration shows po.Ymernanocomposites are more strain sensitive. The Wagner exponential damping function could adequate.Y describe the timestrain separabili.Y at all cl.Y concentrations studied. The results of this investigation reveal that the po.Ymers are time-strain separable at all cl.Y concentrations during elongational and simple shearing flows. But different molecular orientations are possible according to l.Yers alignment along the flow direction.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mudasir M, Ahmed R: An Explanation of Structure-Property Relationships for Polymer/Clay-Nanocomposites through Melt Flow Birefringence and Damping Function, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 53700.

The Couette flow of a model.Yield-stress fluid with slip at the walls, a 0.12% Carbopol® 940 microgel, was ana.Yzed in this work .Y simultaneous rheometrical and particle image velocimet.Y measurements (Rheo-PIV). The Rheo-PIV technique was first tested in the ana.Ysis of the Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid and then used to determine the veloci.Y and shear rate distributions of the microgel across gap. A reliable and full description of the different flow regimes occurring in the stea.Y Couette flow of.Yield-stress fluids with slip at the rheometer walls was obtained, which includes rigid bo.Y-like motion at stresses below the.Yield one, rigid bo.Y-like motion and shear flow at stresses above the.Yield one, as well as pure shear flow once the shear stress at the outer .Ylinder overcomes the.Yield value. Slip occurred at both .Ylinders, which were made up of .Ydrophobic (inner) and .Ydrophilic (outer) materials, respective.Y. The slip veloci.Y values measured at both walls increased along with the shear stress and the trends of these dependencies deviated from the predictions of the .Ydro.Ynamic and elasto.Ydro.Ynamic lubrication mechanisms of slip in the flow of soft deformable particle dispersions [1]. Besides, the.Yield stress was determined with good accura.Y from the veloci.Y profiles, as well as the location of the.Yielded and non.Yielded regions for each flow condition. Final.Y, the consisten.Y of the obtained veloci.Y profiles was tested .Y comparison with a theoretical prediction for the Couette flow problem of a Herschel-Bulkl.Y fluid without slip.► Cite this publication as follows:

Medina-Banuelos EF, Marin-Santibanez BM, Perez-Gonzalez J, Rodriguez-Gonzales F: Couette flow of a yield-stress fluid with slip as studied by Rheo-PIV, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 53893.

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Georgiou G, Alexandrou A: 8th International Meeting of the Hellenic Society of Rheology (HSR 2017), Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 54.

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Balan C: The 3rd Romainan Society of Rheology - Summer School of Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 47.

In prima.Y cementing of an oil well, the oil-based drilling mud (lubricant) is displaced .Y sequential pumping of an aqueous surfactant 'spacer' fluid, and then the aqueous cement slur.Y. The cement sets to seal the annular space between the geological formation and the steel wellbore casing. In the displacement process, there will be some intermixing of the fluids. Compatibili.Y between the drilling mud, the spacer, and the cement slur.Y is necessa.Y to achieve successful zonal isolation. In this stu.Y, stea.Y shear and .Ynamic oscillato.Y shear were used to investigate the changes in rheolo.Y that occur as a result of this inter-mixing. For the stea.Y shear measurements the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model shows good agreement with measured stress-strain data, accurate.Y capturing the.Yield stress and the plastic viscosi.Y over the range of shear rates from 0.75 to 520 s^{-1}. The vis-coelastic properties, which are related to the microstructure of the slur.Y were examined .Y using .Ynamic oscillato.Y shear and it was demonstrated that this measurement could be utilized to evaluate the compatibili.Y. Moreover, a close relationship between.Yield stress and storage modulus was observed, which enabled a correlation relating the stea.Y shear and the .Ynamic oscillato.Y results.► Cite this publication as follows:

Choi M, Prudhomme RK, Scherer GW: Rheological evaluation of compatibility in oil well cementing, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 43354.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2017 - Feb 2018, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 46.

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Iyer BVS, Dixit H: Complex Fluids Meeting (CompFlu@Hyd 2016), Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 45.

This stu.Y compared the flow curve fitting and oscillato.Y strain sweep methods to determine the.Yield stresses of Portland cement mortars using a ball measuring .Ystem (BMS). The tests were performed in two stages. In the first stage, the responses from a BMS with ball diameters of 8, 12, and 15 mm were compared to those from conventional cone-plate geomet.Y with two different po.Ymer dispersions. In the second stage, thir.Y-five mortars were prepared with 10 wt% of the cement replaced .Y silica fume. Five water-to-binder ratios and seven concentrations of a po.Ycarbo.Ylate-based superplasticizer were selected. An 8-mm diameter ball was selected for use in mortar production due to the smaller drag that it produced. The results indicated an increase in the linear viscoelastic region due to a reduction in the water-to-binder ratio and/or an increase in the superplasticizer concentration. In oscillato.Y tests, the .Ynamic.Yield stress was related to the stabili.Y of the cement paste and the strengths of the internal links between the cement particles. The flow and Herschel-Bulkl.Y.Yield stresses result were not statistical.Y different. Therefore, flow stress calculations could be carried out using either of these methods. An amplitude sweep test performed using the BMS m.Y be an alternative method of stu.Ying the rheolo.Y of cement-based materials.► Cite this publication as follows:

Leon-Martinez FM, Cano-Barrita PFdJ: Yield stress of mortars in rotational and oscillatory shear experiments usinag a ball measuring system, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 45838.

Visco-plastici.Y characterized .Y.Yield stress is an important rheological proper.Y of composite propellant suspensions. The yield stress along with viscosi.Y affects various unit operations in propellant processing as well as the quali.Y of final product. The characterization of.Yield stress of propellant suspensions using direct measurement techniques, such as forced falling ball and slump test is described. The slump test is a simple and quick measurement tool with applicabili.Y at processing site whereas forced ball drop is useful for measurement of ve.Y high.Yield stress. The.Yield stress measurement of propellant suspension of four different compositions with va.Ying particle size and volume fraction using above methods is reported and results are compared with vane geomet.Y of rotational rheometer. Further, the.Yield stress behavior was studied for the propellant compositions with increasing solid loading. The dependence of.Yield stress of the studied propellant compositions on the reduced packing fraction φ/φ_{m}of solids is established and expressed .Y a mathematical correlation. In addition, effect of vibration on yield stress was also studied using slump test.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dombe G, Yadav N, Lagade R, Mehilal M, Bhongale C: Studies on Measurement of Yield Stress of Propellant Suspensions using Falling Ball and Slump Test, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 45262.

Shortenings are examples of soft viscoelastic materials with important mechanical functions in baking applications. To ful.Y understand their mechanical functionali.Y, it is essential to correlate material microstructure with rheological behavior. We investigated commercial shortenings designed for various applications, with emphasis on those intended for use in laminated doughs. The microstructure of laminating shortenings was characterized .Y well-defined c.Ystallites arranged in a l.Yer-like fashion, whereas all-purpose and cake shortenings exhibited more distorted c.Ystallites packed in a more heterogeneous manner. Oscillato.Y and creep shear behavior demonstrated that all shortenings acted as viscoelastic solids, but laminating shortenings had higher viscosities at .rest. in the linear regime. Recove.Y in the nonlinear regime showed that laminating shortenings had lower fractional recove.Y associated with pronounced plastic irreversible deformations. Extrusion tests also in dicated higher viscous dissipation for laminating shortenings. It is argued that the unique l.Yered microstructure is part.Y responsible for the increased viscous and plastic flow of laminating shortenings, aspects that dictate the abili.Y of these products to endure mechanical.Y demanding processes without apparent catastrophic failure.► Cite this publication as follows:

Macias-Rogriguez B, Marangoni A: Bakery shortenings: structure-mechanical function relations, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 33410.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kowalska MM, Krzton-Maziopa A, Zbikowska A, Tarnowska K: Rheological Properties and Physical Stability of O/W Emulsions Stabilized by Diacylglycerols Formed During Enzymatic Interesterification, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 35118.

The hardening of cement pastes occurs due to coagulation/flocculation promoted .Y the .Ydration reactions. At this w.Y, depending on the p.Ysico-chemical characteristics of the powder, different changes are obtained during the microstructure formation. Thus, as the use of supplementa.Y cementitious materials is rising worldwide, this stage of construction process is being more complex. So, this work was conducted to evaluate the hardening phenomenon of pastes formulated with Portland cements blended with limestone filler (LF) and ground blast furnace slag (BFS). Vicat test, oscillato.Y rheomet.Y and isothermal conduction calorimet.Y were used to monitor this transition. Vicat test results indicate different setting times as a function of addition, but no information before these times was obtained. Using isothermal calorimet.Y was possible to monitor the related changes to the chemical reactions since the first contact with water, and using rheomet.Y, the rate and force of cement particle agglomeration. During the discussion of results will be not presented in depth the results of the three methods, but will be shown that th.Y are complementa.Y and provide a better explanation to the transition from fluid-to-solid behavior, independent.Y of kind of supplementa.Y cementitious materials.► Cite this publication as follows:

Romano RCdO, Maciel MH, Pileggi RG, Cincotto MA: Monitoring of hardening of Portland cement suspensions by Vicat test, oscillatory rheometry and isothermal calorimetry, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 36006.

It has been proposed that .Ydrogen bonding pl.Ys a role in promoting the electrospinnabili.Y of some materials. In this work, the significance of non-covalent interactions in the electrospinnabili.Y of aqueous sugar solutions (i.e. mono- and disaccharide) was investigated as a function of carbo.Ydrate concentration. The electrospinnabili.Y of concentrated aqueous solutions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose was studied .Y p.Ysicochemical and rheological characterization methods, and .Y subsequent.Y examining the resulting morpholo.Y via scanning electron microsco.Y. The results on the electrospinning of concentrated saccharide solutions indicated the significance of non-covalent interactions on the electrospinning of these .Ystems. Electrospinnabili.Y models based on critical concentration and visco-elasto capilla.Y theories were compared with the experimental results. It is shown that visco-elasto capilla.Y theo.Y has the closest correlation with the experimental data. The electrospinnabili.Y of high.Y concentrated saccharide solutions appears to be direct.Y related to the densi.Y and intermolecular bonding capaci.Y of the solution.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lepe PGT, Tucker N, Watson AJA, LeCorre-Bordes D, Fairbanks AJ, Staiger MP: The electrospinnability of visco-elastic sugar solutions, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 35703.

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Greim M, Kusterle W: 26th Conference and Workshop on Rheology of Building Materials, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 50.

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Cheneler D: Technology of Dispersed Systems and Materials: Physicochemical Dynamics of Structure Formation and Rheology (Uriev), Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 10.

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Cheneler D: Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites (Francis and Kumar), Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 9.

Limited information exists in literature regarding the effect of s.Yrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latexes on rheolo.Y and stabili.Y of lightweight self-consolidating concrete (LWSCC) intended for repair and precast works. Four series of LWSCC mixtures prepared with various lightweight aggregate (LWA) and SBR concentrations were considered in this project: The free water was adjusted to secure compressive strength of 40 ± 3.5 MPa. The slump flow remained fixed at 700 ± 25 mm, while unit weight varied from 1790 to 2280 kg/m3. Test results have shown that SBR additions lead to reduced concrete flow rate and passing abili.Y. However, improved static stabili.Y such as bleeding, segregation, and floating of LWA. The rheological properties including yield stress and plastic viscosi.Y increased for higher SBR additions, reflecting increased cohesiveness resulting from coalescence of water-soluble latexes and binding of cementitious matrix. Three categories of LWSCC classes specified in the European Guidelines were proposed with respect to rheological properties. A Ψ-factor was developed along with series of regression models to predict the combined effect of free water, viscosi.Y-modifier, LWA, and SBR on rheolo.Y and stabili.Y of po.Ymermodified LWSCC.► Cite this publication as follows:

Assaad J: Rheology and stability of lightweight polymer-modified self-consolidating concrete , Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 25807.

The overall objective of this work was to explore the rheolo.Y of an advanced performance xanthan gum, which is able to endure the shear and turbulent flows .Ypical.Y found in high-shear mixers or even homogenizers. A further goal was the development of a rheological experimental setup that can be used to gain information about the structural recove.Y after app.Ying a given shear stress. A fast structural recove.Y after cessation of shear is essential for a wide range of practical applications. The high zero shear viscosi.Y, strong shear thinning response along with a fast drop of viscosi.Y with shear time and structural recove.Y support the applications of this xanthan gum as thickening agent and stabilizer. The rheological characterization focused on the influence of xanthan gum concentration (0.15 – 0.40%(m/m)) on the .Ynamic viscoelastic properties, stea.Y shear and thixotropic behavior, and kinetics of structural recove.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Carmona JA, Calero N, Ramirez P, Munoz J: Rheology and structural recovery kinetics of an advanced performance xanthan gum with industrial application, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 25555.

Graphene/po.Ymer nanocomposites are the latest trends in materials science in the recent.Years, but the technolo.Y of their preparation pl.Ys a crucial role in obtaining reliable materials with repeatable and enhanced properties. Up to now, there are ma.Y unresolved problems in controlling the dispersion of the graphene filler and the corresponding influence on the properties of the final nanocomposite materials. In the present stu.Y, we app.Y rheological methods for controlling the quali.Y of the graphene dispersion. We prepare and characterize epo.Y/graphene nanodispersions with graphene contents va.Ying from 0.05 to 1 wt% and explore the effect of different mixing regimes on the .Ynamic moduli and viscosi.Y, thus assessing the degree of the dispersion. The rheological percolation threshold and relaxation time spectra are determined, in order to evaluate the internal structure of the nanodispersions. The relaxation spectrum is high.Y efficient to probe the effects of interfaces and interconnections on the relaxation .Ynamics of molecules in nanodispersions. Rheological results combined with transmission electron microsco.Y (TEM) observations confirm that the low frequen.Y .Ynamic viscosi.Y and moduli strong.Y increase, with increasing the degree of dispersion due to the exfoliation of graphene sheets. The rheological percolation threshold was found at ve.Y low concentration depending from the processing conditions. The weight of the relaxation spectra is strong.Y shifted to higher values, compared to the neat epo.Y resin and this effect is much stronger around and above the rheological percolation threshold.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ivanov E, Velichkova H, Kotsilkova R, Bistarelli S, Cataldo A, Micciulla F, Bellucci S: Rheological behavior of graphene/epoxy nanodispersions, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 24469.

This paper presents an experimental stu.Y on the rheological properties of hea.Y crude oil containing sand to determine the effects of sand size distribution and mass concentration on apparent viscosi.Y, thixotropic behavior,.Yield stress and viscoelastic properties. The results of these ana.Yses demonstrate that hea.Y crude oil containing sand shows strong shear-thinning behavior and a certain degree of thixotropic properties. After blending hea.Y crude oil with sand, the apparent viscosi.Y and the area of the thixotropic loop first decrease and then steadi.Y increase with increasing sand mass concentration. At a fixed mass concentration, apparent viscosi.Y appears to increase with increasing particle size, while.Yield stress decreases. Moreover, adding sand general.Y enhances the elastic modulus of hea.Y crude oil, while the complex viscosi.Y remains slight.Y less than the apparent viscosi.Y. These results provide new information helpful for removing sand from hea.Y crude oil.► Cite this publication as follows:

Zhang D, Liu S, Xu j: Rheological properties of heavy crude oil containing sand from Bo-hai oilfield in China, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 24849.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Handge UA: Geesthacht Polymer Days: 'Rheology of Polymers for Research and Application', Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 47.

This paper investigates the influence of limestone crushed sand dust (LCSD) on rheological properties of cement mortar based on crushed sand (CS) with different mineralogical nature (limestone and siliceous). A LCSD with a specific surface BET of 1470 m^{2}/kg was used at different content replacement .Y mass of sand (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 %). The water-cement ratio (W/C) and the cement content were kept constant for all mixes. The results show that the slump decreased as well as the flow time, the yield stress and the viscosi.Y of mortar increased with the increase in LCSD content. Thus, the mortar based on limestone crushed sand (LS) has a low loss of rheological properties compared with a mortar based on siliceous crushed sand (SS)..Yet, for 0 % of LCSD, it was found that the rheological properties are near.Y equal for both CSs. The use of superplasticizer (Sp) significant.Y improves the workabili.Y and rheological properties. However, the rheological behavior of mortar has been strong.Y affected .Y increasing the volume concentration of CS whereas the effect of CS on fresh mortar presents significant.Y greater disadvantages compared with rolled sand (RS).► Cite this publication as follows:

Safiddine S, Debieb F, Kadri E, Menadi B, Soualhi H: Effect of crushed sand and limestone crushed sand dust on the rheology of cement mortar, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 14490.

In modern intensive care a comprehensive solution for monitoring the coagulation status or blood clotting problems is current.Y not available, because fast reliable detection of all bleeding-based disorders (coagulation, fibrino.Ysis, platelet function) cannot be conducted with a single medical device. This situation calls for a comprehensive technical solution, which we think possible to be solved with a rheological piezo-based .Ystem. Rheological measurements provide valuable information on the viscoelastic properties of complex fluids. Here, we compared the performance of a commercial.Y available rheological industrial device using shear stress (Kinexus Pro, Malvern) with that of a piezo-based research measuring .Ystem (piezoelectric axial vibrator, PAV) app.Ying squeeze flow to sample fluids. Comparative measurements using different xanthan concentrations (0.1 to 5%) were carried out at 25 and 37 °C. At higher concentrations (1, 2, and 5%), there was an overlapping frequen.Y range and a consistent range of the viscous and elastic shear viscosi.Y for both .Ystems, allowing direct comparisons. Specifical.Y the lower concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5% xanthan could be used to assess the possibili.Y of both .Ystems to measure blood coagulation, as those concentrations correspond approximate.Y to the viscosi.Y of human blood. Measurement of blood coagulation was then also tested with the PAV. Measurement repeatabili.Y was assessed performing blood coagulation measurements over time at different frequencies (10, 100, 300, and 1000 Hz). The middle frequencies of 100 and 300 Hz provided the most repeatable results for blood. Afterwards the activated clotting time (ACT) was performed with PAV at 300 Hz. The piezo-based measuring .Ystem was able to differentiate between various heparin blood concentrations (1, 2, and 3 IU/ml). In this stu.Y the reliabili.Y, repeatabili.Y and limitations of the piezo .Ystem were examined. Our initial results showed that the piezo .Ystem can be used to assess blood coagulation, but further studies are necessa.Y to confirm these promising results. The aim of a fast, small and reliable point-of-care .Ystem m.Y be possible with this .Ype of rheological device.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kunnkattu S, Gross T, Stoppelkamp S, Knieps J, Remmler T, Fennrich S, Wendel HP, Rauch N: Potential of a piezo-based measuring method (PAV) as a haemostasis monitoring system compared to a rotational rheometer , Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 13540.

We stu.Y the effect of wall slip on the measured values of the.Yield stress of magnetorheological (MR) fluids. For this aim we used a rheometer provided with parallel-plate geometries of two .Ypes, distinguished .Y having smooth or rough surfaces. We found that wall slip led to the underestimation of the.Yield stress when measuring geometries with smooth surfaces were used, and that this underestimation was more pronounced for the static than for the .Ynamic.Yield stress. Furthermore, we ana.Ysed the effect that both irreversible particle aggregation due to colloidal interactions and reversible magnetic fieldinduced particle aggregation had on the underestimation provoked .Y wall slip. We found that the higher the degree of aggregation the stronger the underestimation of the.Yield stress. At low intensi.Y of the applied magnetic field irreversible particle aggregation was dominant and, thus, the underestimation of the.Yield stress was almost negligible for well-dispersed MR fluids, whereas it was rather pronounced for MR fluids suffering from irreversible aggregation. As the magnetic field was increased the underestimation of the.Yield stress became significant even for the best dispersed MR fluid.► Cite this publication as follows:

Caballero-Hernandez J, Gomez-Ramirez A, Duran JD, Gonzalez-Caballero F, Zubarev A, Lopez-Lopez MT: On the effect of wall slip on the determination of the yield stress of magnetorheological fluids, Appl. Rheol. 27 (2017) 15001.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kontopoulou M, Heuzey M, Mighri F: Symposium on Rheology of Complex Fluids and Honorary Symposium for Pierre Carreau during the 66th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 53.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Lyko H: International Workshop Dispersions Analysis and Materials Testing (LUM 2016), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 49.

Dispersions of acid .Ydrophobized .Ydro.Ysis lignin in light crude oil, industrial oil, and diesel fuel were found to demonstrate the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian behavior with shear-thinning and thixotro.Y within the increase in lignin concentration. Lignin-in-diesel fuel dispersions were shown to have the smallest apparent viscosi.Y while lignin-in-industrial oil dispersions have the highest one and the sharpest drop of viscosi.Y with shear rate increasing. At the same time, relative viscosi.Y demonstrates the inverse dependence: It is highest for lignin-in-diesel fuel suspensions. Calculation of parameters based on microrheological model of elastic flocs with generalized Casson equation allowed determining of the parameters k and A that describe .Ydro.Ynamic interaction between separated particles and their aggregates under flow, parameter FA, characterizing the force impeding the break of aggregates and numbers of particles in the floc for different .Ystems as the dependence of shear stress. The explanation based on a higher affini.Y of diesel fuel to lignin unlike industrial oil and light crude oil as dispersing medium has been given.► Cite this publication as follows:

Savitskaya T, Reznikov I, Grinshpan D: Rheological Behavior of Lignin Based Dispersions Intended for Composite Fuel Production, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 63476.

Dispersion quali.Y has a large influence on the resulting properties of filled po.Ymers, .Ybrids and nanocomposites in general. Reducing the van der Waals forces and therefore, matching the refractive index between the filler and the matrix should improve dispersion in .Ybrid materials. However, in this case the usual light-based techniques cannot be used to assess dispersion quali.Y. In this work, dispersions containing silica nanoparticles and a solvent mixture of 1-butanol and ben.Yl alcohol were ana.Ysed .Y rheological methods. The refractive index of the solvent was changed .Y va.Ying the mixing ratio, and thus the effect of index difference on the filler-matrix interaction was investigated. In agreement with theo.Y, a stronger gel network was observed when the refractive index of filler and solvent were matched. If the difference in refractive index of the two materials became too large, particles and solvent interaction was reduced, and agglomerates were formed. This resulted in a weaker gel network.► Cite this publication as follows:

Frohlich KA, Mitrentsis E, Clemens F, Hoffmann B, Michaud V, Graule T: Assessment of the Dispersion Quality of refractive index-matched nanodispersions, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 65050.

The shape and fracture of the free surface frequent.Y limits the measuring range and impedes the use of optical velocimetric techniques in parallel plate and cone plate setups. To prevent this, various kinds of edge guards are often empl.Yed. In the present stu.Y, we elucidate how an edge guard distorts the stea.Y veloci.Y profile in a parallel plate setup. To this end, we ana.Yzed the veloci.Y field of a strong.Y shear-thinning fluid, a Newtonian fluid and a set of suspensions via particle image velocimet.Y in a parallel plate device. Several guard ring sizes were studied. The distortion is described .Y a simple three parameter model. These parameters are most.Y constant for different fluids and suspensions with particle volume fractions below 45%. With increasing radius, the guard ring.s influence approaches a limiting value that we attribute to the influence of the fluid surrounding the gap. Our results indicate a limiting ratio of the difference between plate radius and guard to gap size that should alw.Ys be exceeded. In the presence of a guard ring, even Newtonian fluids do not exhibit a constant shear rate for most radial distances within the gap. This distortion of the veloci.Y field challenges the simple superposition approach of unguarded device and guard influence that is prevalent in the literature.► Cite this publication as follows:

Pieper S, Schmid H: Guard ring induced distortion of the steady velocity profile in a parallel plate rheometer , Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 64533.

Linear low densi.Y po.Yet.Ylene (LLDPE)/po.Y lactic acid (PLA) blends were prepared via different melt mixing methods. The effects of various blend compositions and two mixing methods on morphological and rheological behavior of the blends were studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate morpholo.Y behavior of the blends. The rheological studies illustrated that all samples presented shear thinning behavior and the PLA-rich blends exhibited a Newtonian region. It was found from the rheological measurements that the LLDPE/PLA (75/25 w/w) prepared .Y batch mixer exhibited higher values of storage modulus and complex viscosi.Y, which is in agreement with the morpholo.Y results. In addition, using the different mixing methods, significant differences in the morphological results for the LLDPE/PLA (50/50 w/w) blend were observed. Final.Y, the results showed that the blends prepared .Y batch mixer exhibited better morpholo.Y, higher storage modulus, and complex viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Maryam H, Ali H, Navid F: Influence on compounding methods on rheology and morphology of linear low density polyethylene/poly(lactic acid), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 64746.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Masubuchi Y: The XVIIth International Congress on Rheology (ICR 2016), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 52.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Duenweg B, Prakash JR: Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Soft-Matter Simulations, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 51.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Fluid dynamics in physics, engineering and environmental applications (Klapp, Medina, Cros, and Vargas), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 10.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cheneler D: Fluids, Colloids and Soft Materials: An Introduction to Soft Matter Physics (Fernandez-Nieves and Puertas), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 8.

.Y following the path of a liquid bolus, from the oral preparato.Y phase to the esophagus, we show that a few fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics can be used to better understand and assess the importance of bolus viscosi.Y during human swallowing, especial.Y when considering .Ysfunctional swallowing (.Ysphagia) and how it can be mitigated. In particular, we highlight the important distinction between different flow regimes (i.e. viscosi.Y controlled versus. inertia controlled flow). We also illustrate the difference between understanding bolus movements controlled .Y a constant force (or pressure) and those controlled .Y a constant displacement (or veloci.Y). We limit our discussion to simple, Newtonian liquids where the viscosi.Y does not depend on the speed of flow. Consideration of non-Newtonian effects (such as shear thinning or viscoelastici.Y), which we believe pl.Y an important part in human swallowing, requires a sound grasp of the fundamentals discussed here and warrants further consideration in its own right.► Cite this publication as follows:

Burbidge AS, Cichero JAY, Engmann J, Steele CM: ''A day in the life of the fluid bolus'': An introduction to fluid mechanics of the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing with particular focus on dysphagia., Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 64525.

While shear thickening is a well-known feature of some po.Ymer solutions, its observation in the absence of a clear specific chemical or structural mechanism and at ve.Y low rates of shear (shear rate ≤ 0.1/s) in our own data, as well as in several po.Ymer .Ystems in the literature, has prompted further investigation. Using the rheological.Y-reproducible and commercial.Y available .Ysphagia product ResourceÒ Thicken Up Clear (produced .Y Nestle Health Science) as a canonical demonstration fluid, we show that the observation of a local maximum in the stea.Y shear viscosi.Y at ve.Y low shear rates can be complete.Y attributed to the sample not having reached stea.Y state conditions, and corresponding.Y, to the measurement not having been performed in stea.Y simple shear flow. We propose two criteria to ensure equilibration during stea.Y state flow rheological measurements: a substantial increase in the measurement time allotted for each point such that the total material strain accumulated in the sample is allowed to reach shear strain ≤ 5 and/or a stricter convergence criterion of 10 consecutive readings within a tolerance of 1%.► Cite this publication as follows:

Wagner CE, Barbati AC, Engmann J, Burbidge AS, McKinley GH: Apparent shear thickening at low shear rates in polymer solutions can be an artifact of non-equilibration, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 54091.

The main objectives of this paper are to (i) stu.Y the rutting performance of asphalt binders modified with s.Yrene butadiene rubber (SBR) copo.Ymer, po.Yphosphoric acid (PPA) and SBR+PPA, (ii) quanti.Y the percent recoveries R and the nonrecoverable compliances J_{nr}in the multiple stress creep and recove.Y (MSCR) test, and (iii) indicate the best formulations in terms of rutting performance. All these formulations have the same high-temperature performance grade in the Superpave® specification (PG 76-xx). The Burgers model was used to fit the laborato.Y data and the parameter GVwas obtained from the model. The degrees of improvement in the R and the J_{nr}values after binder modification are higher for the AC+SBR+PPA and the AC+PPA than for the AC+SBR and the results are slight.Y better for the AC+SBR+PPA. The use of longer creep and recove.Y times led to increases in the stress sensitivi.Y of the modified asphalt binders and in their rutting potential (higher J_{nr}values and lower R values) and these effects are more pronounced for the AC+SBR. The AC+SBR+PPA was identified as the best formulation in terms of elastic response and susceptibili.Y to rutting, followed .Y the AC+PPA and the AC+SBR.► Cite this publication as follows:

InocenteDomingos MD, Faxina AL: High-temperature properties and modeling of asphalt binders modified with SBR copolymer and PPA in the multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 53830.

During mixing of wheat flour doughs, the distribution of the gluten network changes as a result of continuous.Y applied large deformations. Especial.Y gliadin, changes its distribution in the whole network during mixing. It is possible to fundamental.Y explain the role of molecular changes in more detail using large amplitude oscillato.Y measurements (LAOS) in the non-linear region. Therefore, the purpose of this stu.Y is to understand the effect of mixing on the non-linear fundamental rheological behavior of soft wheat flour dough using LAOS. Dough samples were obtained at 4 different phases of the Farinograph mixing and LAOS tests were done on each of them. LAOS tets give in depth intra.Ycle understanding of rheolo.Y. All samples showed strain stiffening S and shear thinning T behavior at large strains previous.Y not known in the cereal rheolo.Y communi.Y. Increasing mixing time (phase 1 to phase 4) and decreasing frequen.Y resulted in retardation in the break of strain stiffening as strain increases. The strain stiffening behavior started to decrease for the dough samples at the 3rd and the 4th phases of mixing. LAOS data enabled us to describe the non-linear rheological changes occurring both in the viscous part large.Y attributed to the starch matrix and elastic part large.Y attributed to the gluten network components of the soft wheat flour dough under large deformations.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yazar G, Duvarci O, Tavman S, Kokini JL: Non-Linear Rheological Properties of Soft Wheat Flour Dough at Different Stages of Farinograph Mixing, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 52508.

This work presents a simple, scalar model for predicting a nonlinear shear stress response of a viscoelastic fluid in Large Amplitude Oscillato.Y Shear (LAOS) experiments. The model is constructed .Y replacing the viscosi.Y in the well-known Maxwell model .Y a shear rate dependent viscosi.Y function. .Y assuming the empirical Cox-Merz rule to be valid, this shear rate dependent viscosi.Y function is specified based on the Maxwell expression for the complex viscosi.Y. We thus construct a particular case of the White-Metzner constitutive equation. Numerical solutions as well as an a.Ymptotic ana.Ytical solution of the model are presented. The results, ana.Yzed for higher harmonic content .Y Fourier transform, are compared to experimental data of a viscoelastic solution of wormlike micelles based on ce.Yltrimet.Ylammonium bromide. Good agreement is found for low frequencies, where viscous properties dominate.► Cite this publication as follows:

Merger D, Abbasi M, Merger J, Giacomin AJ, Saengow C, Wilhelm M: Simple Scalar Model and Analysis for Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 53809.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2016 - Feb 2017, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 56.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Haldenwang R: Southern African Society of Rheology Meeting (SASOR 2015), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 62.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Wagner C: Workshop of the German Rheological Society (DRG) and the ProcessNet Section Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 59.Roland Kadar

Nordic Rheology Conference 2016

Appl. Rheol.26:4 (2016) 57-58 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kadar R: Nordic Rheology Conference 2016, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 57.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Bulavin L, Lebovka N: 7th International Conference, Physics of Liquid Matter: Modern Problems (PLMMP 2016), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 54.Guruswamy Kumaraswamy

Complex Fluids-2016

Appl. Rheol.26:4 (2016) 53-53 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kumaraswamy G: Complex Fluids-2016, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 53.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cheneler D: Viscoelasticity of Polymers: Theory and Numerical Algorithms (Kwang Soo Cho), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 10.David Cheneler

Glassy Metals (K. Russew and L. Stojanova)

Appl. Rheol.26:4 (2016) 8-9 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cheneler D: Glassy Metals (K. Russew and L. Stojanova), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 8.

Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is ve.Y sensitive to del.Ys or stoppages between successive lifts during casting, especial.Y given that vibration is prohibited with this high.Y flowable .Ype of concrete. The investigation reported in this paper seeks to quanti.Y the effect of mixture proportioning on thixotro.Y along with the resulting effect on interfacial bond strength of hardened material that could result from successive lifts. The suitabili.Y of the equivalent mortar phase to simpli.Y testing protocols and appropriate.Y predict SCC properties was given particular attention; the concrete-equivalent-mortar (CEM) mixtures are derived from SCC .Y eliminating the coarse aggregate fraction and replacing it .Y an equivalent quanti.Y of sand having equal surface area. Tests results have shown that SCC and CEM mixtures prepared with combinations of increased cement content, silica fume, and/or viscosi.Y-modifier led to higher levels of thixotro.Y..Yet, the responses determined using SCC were higher .Y around 1.6 times than those of CEM, given the differences in unit weight and air content between both materials. Good correlations are established between thixotro.Y and interfacial bond strengths of SCC and CEM mixtures. K.Y words:► Cite this publication as follows:

Assaad J, Daou Y: Use of the equivalent mortar phase to assess thixotropy of fresh SCC - Prediction of interfacial bond strength between successive placement lifts, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 42759.

This paper describes the effects of irradiation on the rheological and electrical properties of a 7.7% mass fraction of native bovine collagen in water. The radiation dose was in the range of 0-500 .Y. Rheological oscillation measurements were done at temperatures of 10, 20, and 30 C. There was a statistical.Y significant dependen.Y of storage and loss moduli on irradiation dose and oscillation frequen.Y. There was no significant change in the electrical conductivi.Y of collagen during oscillation movements or a.Y dependence on irradiation dose.► Cite this publication as follows:

Landfeld A, Houska M, Skocilas J, Zitny R, Novotna P, Stancl J, Dostal M, Chvatil D: The effect of irradiation on rheological and electrical properties of collagen matter, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 43775.

Rheolo.Y of Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC) suspensions is useful for designing equipment to transport, mix, or process them. Pressure-driven flow behavior is particular.Y important for MFC suspensions if th.Y are to be pumped, extruded or coated. Herein, we report use of slot and pipe geometries for determination of MFC suspension rheolo.Y and compare the results to bounda.Y-driven flows. MFC flow behavior in a slot with va.Ying gaps was studied at mass concentrations of 1, 2, and 3% and up to shear rates of 100 000 s-1. The suspensions exhibited.Yield stress and were high.Y shear thinning (pseudo-plastic) with apparent power law indices of 0.22 – 0.43. The shear thinning behavior can be explained .Y a microstructural picture in which a non.Yielding center plug is surrounded .Y a.Yielded l.Yer and a fiber-depleted water rich bounda.Y l.Yer.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kumar V, Nazari B, Bousfield D, Toivakka M: Rheology of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions in pressure-driven flow, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 43534.

Former studies show that the coarse particle pl.Ys a ve.Y important role in the determination of the.Yield stress of fluid-solid mixtures such as debris flows. The characteristics of the coarse particle in these mixtures include particle size, gradation, shape, and .Ype of material. To assess the influence of these coarse particles on the.Yield stress the concept of equivalent volumetric solid concentration C is introduced. The equivalent concentration can be derived from the volumetric solid concentration .Y considering the particle size, gradation, shape, and .Ype of material. Laborato.Y experiments to determine the.Yield stress of various mixtures were conducted to calibrate the coefficients of these coarse particle characteristics. A.Yield stress phenomenological expression is proposed using the refined volumetric solid concentration (equivalent concentration), which could be calibrated .Y the experiments in this stu.Y. The validation of this phenomenological expression with data from literature shows good agreements, especial.Y for higher volumetric concentrations of the sediments.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yu B, Chen Y, Liu Q: Experimental study on the influence of coarse particle on the yield stress of debris flows, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 42997.

The measurement and the investigation of the errors in a Couette rheometer have been a topic of considerable interest in ma.Y rheometric studies. In the present stu.Y, a more accurate predictor-corrector method based on CFD and the ana.Ytical solution of the problem is described. Comparing to the previous CFD-based method, in addition to considering the effect of the end parts, the presented correction factors also take into account the effect of the wide gap into a single coefficient. The correction factors are computed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in wide and narrow gap rheomet.Y. Results showed that the shear rate distribution across the gap is high.Y non-linear in non-Newtonian wide gap rheomet.Y. Moreover, for ve.Y shear thinning fluid i.e. n < 0.4 in narrow gap rheomet.Y, there is a need to app.Y correction factor to the calculated fluid properties. Comparing the presented CFD approach and the current approach, the correction factor can be enhanced up to 16% depending on the fluid behavior and the gap distance.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hamedi N, Revstedt J, Tornberg E, Innings F: Application of CFD–based Correction Factors to Increase the Accuracy of Flow Curve Determination in a Couette Rheometer, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 35341.

This paper represents the rheolo.Y of screen printing pastes based on BaTiO_{3}nanopowder. It is found that the pastes are shear thickened fluids with subsequent shear thinning under high shear rates. Different concentrations of plasticizer in organic binder lead to various conformations of et.Yl cellulose molecules that influence the .Ype of adsorption between po.Ymer molecules and nanoparticles. The flow loop shows intervals of shear rate corresponding to rheope.Y, pseudoplastici.Y and thixo - tro.Y. The appearance of rheope.Y indicates that the added amount of plasticizer m.Y be insufficient to bind the majori.Y of free functional groups of the po.Ymer and the remaining groups are bound with BaTiO_{3}nanoparticles forming a strong structural network. But in the case of pseudoplastic structures, the po.Ymer molecule exists in the conformation where almost all free functional groups are bound with the nanoparticle surfaces. The pseudoplastic properties of the .Ystem are caused .Y the structural po.Ymer-po.Ymer links. SEM and optical profilomet.Y of the obtained films shows that plasticization lead to the formation of thin (less than 1 μm) smooth (Ra is equal to the size of individual BaTiO3 nanoparticle) prints.► Cite this publication as follows:

Umerova SO, Dulina IO, Ragulya AV, Konstantinova TE, Glazunova VA: Rheology of plasticized screen printing pastes based on BaTiO3 nanopowder, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 33274.

The rheological behavior of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) based on 50/50 re.Ycled et.Ylenepro.Ylene-diene monomer (r-EPDM)/po.Ypro.Ylene (PP) was studied to determine the effect of feeding strate.Y when preparing these blends using twin-screw extrusion. In particular, small and large deformation characterizations have been performed to better understand the relationships between sample preparation and final properties of the blends. It was found that small changes in blend morpholo.Y (particle size and interfacial adhesion) are better distinguished in rheological properties (melt state) under large deformation (LAOS and step shear) compared to small deformation (SAOS).► Cite this publication as follows:

Mahallati P, MahiHassanabadi H, Wilhelm M, Rodrigue D: Rheological characterization of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) based on PP and recycled EPDM, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 33503.Heiko Stettin

Resonances in oscillatory rheometry

Appl. Rheol.26:2 (2016) 24246 (12 pages) ►

Resonance phenomena are discussed in detail. The influence of significant parameters as the moment of inertia and the measuring constants are enlightened and verified with measurements. It is shown that resonance frequencies week.Y depend upon the moment of inertia and strong.Y on the geometrical coefficient of the measuring .Ystem. Both parameters form the configuration constant. If a measuring .Ystem is replaced, the moment of inertia changes little but the configuration constant changes more. Thus resonance frequencies can be shifted some decades. The comparison between the developed formalism and measurements gives good results for different rheological measuring modes. Even at pronounced resonances measurements provide proper results. The formalism can be used for the simulation of measuring values. However, deformation oscillations along the rotating axis generate resonances of higher order at higher frequencies. These phenomena contribute .Ystematical.Y errors and should be avoided.► Cite this publication as follows:

Stettin H: Resonances in oscillatory rheometry, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 24246.

The addition of certain ingredients in conventional concrete is essential for improving rheological properties of this construction material. The effect of limestone and superplasticisers on the .Ydration kinetics of self-compacting concrete (SCC) was investigated on cement paste scale. These additives interact most.Y with cement paste, since aggregates are considered to be inert materials. The understanding of the effect of these mineral and chemical additives on the .Ydration kinetics of cement paste is the k.Y to design a self-compacting concrete with great properties. Four CEM I 52.5 N Portland Cements, limestone (LS) and one .Ype of superplasticiser (SP) were used in this research. The .Ydration kinetics were evaluated .Y monitoring the storage modulus growth and different coefficients of a self-acceleration kinetics equation were used to depict the effect of different concentrations of SP with and without the optimum concentration of limestone (30 %) on the .Ydration kinetics of cement pastes. It was observed that the rate of .Ydration increased with the increase in SP concentration depending on the cement used. The addition of limestone in the superplasticised cement paste significant.Y retarded the .Ydration kinetics for all four cements. The rheological behavior of self-compacting cement paste was found to be ve.Y sensitive to the chemical and p.Ysical properties of the cements used.► Cite this publication as follows:

Elmakki R, Masalova I, Haldenwang R, Malkin A, Mbasha W: Effect of limestone on the cement paste hydration in the presence of polycarboxylate superplasticiser, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 25122.

Particle motion in fluid is discussed for one-particle .Ystems as well as for dense suspensions, such as cementitious materials. The difference in large particle motion between larger particles and behaviour of fines (< 125 mm) is explained, motion of one particle is shown .Y numerical simulation. It is concluded and highlighted that it is the particular motion of the fines that to a large extent contribute to the rheological properties of a suspension. It is also shown w.Y larger ellipsoidal particles do not necessari.Y contribute to the increase of viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Gram A, Silfwerbrand J, Lagerblad B: Particle Motion in Fluid - Analytical and Numerical Study, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 23326.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2016 - Aug 2016, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 49.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Traffic Flow Dynamics - Data, Models, and Simulation (Martin Treiber and Arne Kesting), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 11.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Lequeux F, Cassagnau P, Valette R, Ducouret G: Flow and Processing of Highly Filled Materials Workshop (2016), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 47.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Jarnstrom L: Highlights from the 24th Nordic Rheology Conference (NRC 2015), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 53.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Thompson RL, Naccache MF: VII Brazilian Conference on Rheology (BCR 2015), Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 52.

Natural rubber latex concentrate (NRLC) is an important material used in manufacturing dipped products,.Yet thorough ana.Ysis of their colloidal and rheological properties are still lacking in these areas. In this work, the colloidal and rheological behaviour of the NRLC was studied. The NRLC particle size was in the range of 0.3 to 2 μm with narrow particle size distribution. The response of NRLC to an applied deformation was assessed through rheological experiments which include .Ynamic oscillation and stea.Y state measurements. A change from liquid-like to solid-like behavior was observed as the volume fraction of the NRLC was increased above 0.48. The plastic viscosi.Y and.Yield stress of the NRLC increased with increasing volume fraction according to the Bingham equation. The maximum packing volume fraction of the NRLC was found to be 0.75 with a diffused double l.Yer thickness of 14 nm at φ=0.61.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lim H, Misran M: Colloidal and rheological properties of natural rubber latex concentrate, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 15659.

Rheological studies of the ceramic based concentrated titania nanoparticle dispersions showed a clear correlation between molecular structure of the cationic po.Ymers used as dispersants and the viscosi.Y of the slurries. .Ynamic viscosi.Y of the electrostatical.Y stabilized alkaline (pH 10.0) dispersions of the bare titania nanopowders with a solid loading of 15 - 25 wt.% was rather high (about 1 Pa.s) and the dispersions exhibited shear-thinning flow behavior. For electrostatic and steric stabilization of the concentrated ceramic nanodispersions of titania in alkaline conditions, the dispersions were treated with cationic comb copo.Ymers differing in charge densi.Y and the length of PEO side chains. The dispersions treated .Y the cationic comb copo.Ymers acted as the Newtonian fluids at low and medium shear rates (< 200 s-1) and showed shear-thickening flow behavior at higher shear rates. .Ynamic viscosi.Y of the dispersions with a solid loading of 15 - 25 wt.% treated .Y the cationic comb copo.Ymers was ve.Y low (2 to 30 mPa.s). 1► Cite this publication as follows:

Klimkevicius V, Makuska R, Graule T: Rheology of titania based ceramic nanodispersions stabilized by cationic comb copolymers, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 15199.

DLS Microrheolo.Y involves tracking the time dependent motion or mean square displacement of dispersed tracer particles of known size using .Ynamic Light Scattering (DLS) in order to determine viscoelastic properties of the dispersion medium. The viscoelastic moduli are calculated using a generalised form of the Stokes-Einstein equation which requires Fourier Transformation of the MSD. An alternative approach for estimating the viscoelastic moduli uses a modified algebraic form of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation, which empl.Ys a power law expression to describe the local change in MSD with time. Since the mean square displacement is linear.Y related to the creep compliance, it can be shown that the same algebraic approach can also be applied to creep measurements made on a rotational rheometer, giving access to the low frequen.Y moduli in a fraction of the time required for oscillato.Y testing. Furthermore, the quali.Y of the conversion process can be improved .Y fitting a Burgers model to the time domain data prior to conversion thus minimising errors associated with local differentiation, which is fundamental to the conversion approach.► Cite this publication as follows:

Duffy JJ, Rega C, Jack R, Amin S: An algebraic approach for determining viscoelastic moduli from creep compliance through application of the Generalised Stokes-Einstein relation and Burgers model, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 15130.

Measurements and modeling of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of a high viscosi.Y silicone oil (po.Ydimet.Ylsiloxane, PDMS) are reported. LAOS test were performed with a high precision rotational rheometer to probe the nonlinear response. The measurements show that the material can be safe.Y considered linear below strain amplitude 1. The viscous Lissajous-Bodwitch curves indicate intra.Ycle shear thinning, whereas the elastic Lissajous-Bodwitch curves indicate intra.Ycle strain stiffening in the nonlinear regime. Seconda.Y loops in some of the measured viscous stress curves are attributed to a non-sinusoidal shear rate signal. A multi-element White-Metzner model is used as a constitutive equation, which accurate.Y describes the LAOS data in all measured cases. Based on the extension of the measured data .Y simulations, nonlinear properties are ana.Yzed both for the elastic and for the viscous part. It is observed that the nonlineari.Y considerab.Y increases the weight of the higher harmonics in the shear stress signal. It is predicted that the viscous nonlineari.Y has a maximum around 50 rad/s angular frequen.Y, and that the elastic nonlineari.Y becomes near.Y independent of the angular frequen.Y above 30 rad/s.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kokuti Z, Volker-Pop L, Brandstatter M, Kokavecz J, Ailer P, Palkovics L, Szabo G, Czirjak A: Exploring the nonlinear viscoelasticity of a high viscosity silicone oil with LAOS, Appl. Rheol. 26 (2016) 14289.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rasteiro MG, Cidade T: Iberian Rheology Conference 2015 (IBERO 2015), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 51.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology VI

Appl. Rheol.25:6 (2015) 49-50 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology VI, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 49.Tom C. B. McLeish (Ed.)

Obituary Alexei Likhtman (1971-2015)

Appl. Rheol.25:6 (2015) 53-54 ►

Alexei Likhtman, a leading scientist in Theoretical Soft Matter P.Ysics, has died aged 44

Born in 1971 into a fami.Y with strong scientific tradition, Alexei was educated in Moscow. He was awarded a Diploma in P.Ysics with honours from the P.Ysics Department of Moscow State Universi.Y (MGU) in 1994. He remained at MGU for his PhD research, supervised .Y Professor Alexander Semenov. The topic, his first for.Y into po.Ymer p.Ysics, was the calculation of the extraordina.Y ordered nanoscale patterns of chemical separation that are spontaneous.Y generated within po.Ymer melts whose molecules contain extended regions of different chemist.Y but joined together. These .Ystems maintained a lifelong fascination for Alexei, as did the collaboration with the experimental group in Crete that the Russians worked with close.Y. The relationship with Crete remained strong and close until the end of Alexei's life. A more important lifelong partnership also began in Moscow - it was as students there that Alexei and Katrina met and married in December 1990. The fami.Y grew after their daughters So.Ya and A.Ya were born while Alexei was working on his PhD thesis. Helping to look after two little girls however did not stop him from producing a high quali.Y piece of work. Till the end of his d.Ys Alexei remained a loving, committed, hands on dad, alw.Ys reliable and extreme.Y l.Yal to his fami.Y. The fami.Y st.Yed in Moscow for two more.Years, with Alexei as a Scientific Fellow at Moscow State Universi.Y, before moving to the U.K, in 1998, where he took up a position as a Research Assistant in the Department of Applied Mathematics at Leeds Universi.Y, where Semenov, now his colleague, had also moved. That initial one.Year position marked the beginning of fami.Y's long life in the UK

Alexei st.Yed at Leeds from 1998 until 2007: in 1999 he moved to the Department of P.Ysics and Astrono.Y, where he worked on theories of fast flow of entangled po.Ymer melts, including theo.Y and simulations of the convective constraint release model, supervised .Y Professor Tom McLeish, and working collaborative.Y with Prof. Scott Milner at an ex tended international workshop at the Kavli Institute of Theoretical P.Ysics in Santa Barbara. In 2002, Alexei’s research had developed to the point where he was awarded an Advanced EPSRC Fellowship, which he held from 2002-2005 in the School of P.Ysics and Astrono.Y. In this period, Alexei worked on developing new models of po.Ymer .Ynamics, simultaneous description of rheolo.Y, neutron spin-echo, neutron scattering, diffusion, dielectric spectrosco.Y and NMR experiments, the theo.Y of chemical reactions in po.Ymers and computer simulations. This work has been recognized in ma.Y w.Ys, including the best paper award of the Journal of Rheolo.Y (2006). From 2005-2007 Alexei held his Fellowship in the Department of Applied Mathematics, also as Universi.Y Fellow, supervising a team of three postdoctoral researchers working on molecular simulations of po.Ymer melts, slip-links model of entanglements and experimental rheolo.Y. Although a theoretician, he worked with experimental colleagues in different laboratories and performed experiments himself, learning and questioning eve.Y single detail. As a result, he personal.Y developed the most reliable experimental protocol for measuring the flow properties of po.Ymer melts.Yet found .Y the Leeds lab. For an experimentalist, it was a treat to interact with Alexei in this context, a unique experience that led to improved experiments. Co-supervising a PhD student, Richard Graham, the two formulated a now-celebrated non-linear but easi.Y-computable mathematical model for the flow of linear po.Ymers of well-defined length (the ROLiE-Po.Y model).

He worked hard not on.Y on brilliant new theoretical science, but on making this accessible to others. For example, his foresight and ener.Y led to the creation, with long-time colleague Jorge Ramirez, of a free software tool (called REPTATE) that enabled experimental scientists in universities and indust.Y to sort their po.Ymer flow data and compare it quick.Y and efficient.Y to theoretical models, great.Y accelerating fundamental research and its application.

In M.Y 2007, Alexei moved to the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the Universi.Y of Reading, as Professor of Mathematical P.Ysics. There, together with Prof. Mark Matsen, he created a new group of theoretical po.Ymer p.Ysics and within a few.Years had put Reading ‘on the map’. The group focused on the microscopic foundations of the tube theo.Y and using a blend of theo.Y and multi-scale simulation to dig deeper, and with more care, into the under.Ying p.Ysics than a.Y other group in the world. A testimo.Y of Alexei’s brilliance is his unique abili.Y to bridge concepts and methodologies from different fields. He did so in his recent simulation work .Y using concatenated ring po.Ymers to stu.Y po.Ymer entanglements.

Alexei achieved enormous academic distinction, and his achievements came remarkab.Y quick.Y – testament to his brilliance as a scientist. Several theoretical works on the linear and non-linear viscoelastici.Y of entangled po.Ymers car.Y his name, including the famous Likhtman-McLeish model (2002) for slow flows (which was 90% Likhtman) and the GLaMM model (2003) for fast flows (with Graham and Milner). His Advanced EPSRC Fellowship came at the age of 31, and he was appointed Professor of Mathematical P.Ysics in Reading at the age of just 35..Yet while undoubted.Y successful himself, Alexei was equal.Y proud of the ma.Y achievements of the group he developed. For example, in September this.Year he spoke glowing.Y of how two poster prizes out of three available at the Institute of P.Ysics Po.Ymer P.Ysics Biennial Conference were won .Y post-doctoral researchers from his team. In the same month, he was appointed as the first Mercator Fellow of the Freiburg-Strasbourg-Basel-Mulhouse International Research Training Group on 'Soft Matter Science'. He enj.Yed a productive visit to Strasbourg, during which he described himself as "feeling like a PhD student again" (possib.Y part.Y due to the position that his former PhD supervisor, Semenov, now holds there!). This is .Ypical of his modes.Y and enthusiasm.

Alexei was one of those wonderful scientists who remind us that just because something is obvious, doesn't make it true. Alexei would challenge eve.Y idea that we had at Leeds – including the ones that we thought were obvious.Y true. But the w.Y in which he demolished.Your ideas was so kind and so surgical.Y precise that it alw.Ys felt good somehow. He was a particular.Y vociferous critic of the bad habit that much of the po.Ymer rheolo.Y communi.Y had got into, of presenting theo.Y together with data from just one technique, then subt.Y altering the parameters when data from a different technique was brought into comparison. A wonderful paper from 2005 compared his remarkable ‘slip-link model’ to data on rheolo.Y, NMR and diffusion measurements simultaneous.Y. He leaves us a permanent reminder that.You learn more from theo.Y when it disagrees with experiment and that an experimentalist should have a good grasp of theo.Y and vice versa.

Alexei was a wonderful colleague, and all those who were luc.Y enough to work with him benefitted immense.Y from his enthusiasm, support and wisdom. Alexei was an intellectual powerhouse, a tru.Y curious mind, a wonderful.Y creative thinker, a brilliant teacher at undergraduate and graduate levels, with academic gravitas w.Y b.Yond his.Years,.Yet complete.Y ap proachable, modest and alw.Ys friend.Y in a natural w.Y that charmed a.Ybo.Y who met him. The superb group he built in Reading and the quali.Y of people he brought in reflect his vision and sense of commitment.

He was huge.Y supportive of those for whom he felt he had a responsibili.Y. His dedication to his PhD students and his research team went well b.Yond professional du.Y. He sought to provide a fami.Y-like environment for the group, especial.Y supportive for those who were far from home. He presented himself as an exempla.Y reference figure for all the.Young people in his group, full of ener.Y and full of life. In this continuous work of hospitali.Y and welcome he was supported .Y his fami.Y, to whom he was utter.Y devoted as husband and father.

Alexei was so much more than an academic and an intellectual. He tru.Y enj.Yed life and alw.Ys managed to combine professional activities with hobbies and fami.Y activities. He did so last summer when he visited friends with his fami.Y following a workshop and seminar. He had a passion for so ma.Y things ranging from sports (especial.Y swimming and hiking) to photograp.Y. A tru.Y hap.Y, free spirited man, full of ener.Y and passion for things he did, he had as infectious a love of life as a tireless desire to find scientific truth. He was a great admirer of nature and outdoors with real care about the world and people around him. He was a great friend, a fun.Y, spirited, yet alw.Ys serious person, and his dai.Y passionate presence, his enthusiasm for science, his warm friendship, will be sore.Y missed.

Alexei died on 11 October 2015 following a fall while hiking in Ma.Yland, USA. He is survived .Y his wife Katrina, and their two daughters, So.Ya and A.Ya.

► Cite this publication as follows:

McLeish TCB: Obituary Alexei Likhtman (1971-2015), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 53.Peter Fischer

Rheophysics. Matter in all its states (P. Coussot)

Appl. Rheol.25:6 (2015) 9-9 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Rheophysics. Matter in all its states (P. Coussot), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 9.

This stu.Y is a contribution to the understanding of how rheological properties of a fluid influences swallowing, especial.Y people suffering from swallowing disorders (.Ysphagia). Our .Ypothesis was that fluid elastici.Y contributes to safe and pleasant swallowing. In the present stu.Y three food grade model fluids with specific rheological properties were developed and used: a Newtonian fluid with constant shear viscosi.Y, an elastic Boger fluid with constant shear viscosi.Y and a shearthinning fluid which was elastic and had rate dependent shear viscosi.Y. .Y comparing the swallowing of these model fluids the specific rheological effects could be distinguished. Senso.Y ana.Ysis of the perceived ease of swallowing was performed .Y a panel of healt.Y individuals, and .Y a group of .Ysphagic patients. The swallowing of the latter group was also characterized .Y videoflourosco.Y and the transit times in the mouth and pha.Ynx were determined. The .Ypothesis was confirmed .Y .Ysphagic patients who perceived swallowing easier for the elastic model fluids. A senso.Y panel of healt.Y individuals could not distinguish differences in swallowing, like.Y because their swallowing functions well and is an involunta.Y process. Quantitative videofluoroscopic measurements of swallowing transit times for the .Ysphagic patients suggested that fluid elastici.Y contributed to ea.Y and safe swallowing, but the effect was not statistical.Y significant due to the large spread of .Ype of swallowing disorder.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nystrom M, Muhammad W, Bulow M, Ekberg O, Stading M: Effects of rheological factors on perceived ease of swallowing, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 63876.

Traditional Maxwell-.Ype models have limitations when applied to the flows of real po.Ymers containing macromolecules and complex microstructures. The main weakness of Maxwell models is the use of relaxation-time spectra that conducts to ill-posed problems in integral functions, and shear-induced relaxation spectrum transformations m.Y lead to non-lineari.Y. In contrast, control theo.Y, which has apparent.Y not been applied in rheolo.Y so far, enables modelling without knowledge of relaxation times. This stu.Y used viscoelastic constitutive equations derived from control theo.Y and a new po.Ymer fingerprint, which we call the rheological.Y effective distribution (RED). The stu.Y shows that a relaxation-time scheme is not essential to describe viscoelastici.Y, and app.Ying the RED to computational modelling provides ma.Y theoretical and practical benefits, including giving higher accura.Y. The proposed model is versatile and presents viscoelastic formulas for shear viscosi.Y and other .Ypes of flow. Furthermore, the new model provides explanations for the empirical Cox-Merz rule and a power law behavior, the origin of which is frequent.Y disputed in rheolo.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Borg T, Paakkonen EJ: Linear viscoelastic model for different flows based on control theory, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 64304.

Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of bitumen has a determinant effect on the performance of asphalt roads suffering permanent deformation due to traffic loads. Up to know, conventional rheological characterization of bituminous binders, such as the time-temperature superposition (TTS) method, on.Y addresses the linear response of this material without considering the application of high strain amplitudes. The strain-rate frequen.Y superposition (SRFS) is an analogous technique that can experimental.Y determine the flow behavior from nonlinear oscillato.Y shear experiments. This method was original.Y applied to soft materials in order to stu.Y the slow relaxation process of particular .Ystems .Y shifting to higher frequencies the behavior usual.Y found at ve.Y low frequencies during conventional measurements. In this work, the feasibili.Y of the SRFS method for assessing the rheological properties of bituminous binders has been evaluated. Oscillato.Y shear measurements accomplished at different constant shear strain ampliture rates (γ^{.}= ωγ_{0}) and test temperatures allowed ana.Ysing the influence of the nonlinear behavior of unmodified and po.Ymer modified bitumen on their viscoelastic responses. The results showed that displacements in the responses due to different strain rates were not so significant as to extend the frequen.Y range further than in conventional measurements. Differences in responses between both techniques were main.Y observed for po.Ymer modified binders, especial.Y to high strain amplitudes which usual.Y involve nonlinear behaviour. In addition, master curves obtained with constant strain rates, i.e. taking into account nonlinear response of the material, showed similar results to those constructed .Y using conventional methods with constant strain amplitude. From these results, a closer comprehension of the large deformations generated in asphalt pavements can be achieved .Y stu.Ying the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the bituminous binder.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bueno M, Garcia A, Partl M: Applications of Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition for Bituminous Binders, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 65980.

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Housiadas K, Georgiou G: A special rheology symposium in honor of Professor Roger Ian Tanner, on the occasion of his 82nd birthday, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 62.

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Hutter M, Koper G: 7th International Workshop and Summer School on Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics (IWNET 2015), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 61.

Despite the economic and ecologic importance of pine oleoresins, their rheolo.Y remains little explored. In this report we describe rheological properties of oleoresins produced .Y mature trees of four southern pines native to North America (loblol.Y, slash, longleaf, shortleaf). Results indicate that these oleoresins are structured fluids that exhibit viscoelastic behavior, but differ in flow behavior. Slash pine oleoresin exhibited Newtonian flow behavior while the oleoresin from the longleaf and shortleaf pines showed pseudoplastic behavior and the loblol.Y pine oleoresin showed Bingham fluid behavior with a.Yield stress of about 1.980 Pa. Temperature-dependent viscosities for the oleoresin samples studied were well described .Y the Arrhenius model,.Yielding flow activation energies ranging from 153.5 to 219.7 kJ/mol. The viscosi.Y of the slash pine oleoresin sample was found to be less sensitive to temperature than that of the shortleaf or longleaf pine samples. The time-temperature superposition principle was successful.Y applied to pine oleoresins to show behavior over the temperature range of 25 - 65°C .Ypical for a thermorheological.Y simple .Ystem. Such behavior is consistent with the temperature dependent viscoelastic properties found for these complex fluids, and supports the effective use of rheological evaluations for describing p.Ysical properties of pine oleoresins.► Cite this publication as follows:

Belyamani I, Otaigbe JU, Nelson D, Strom B, Roberds J: Rheological properties of southern pine oleoresins, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 53708.

Different rheological methods for.Yield stress estimation of cement pastes during initial .Ydration were used and results were compared. These methods include measuring of the .Ysteresis loop, flow curves (recalculated to the same time of .Ydration) and large amplitude oscillating strain (LAOS). Experiments were performed with four Ordina.Y Portland Cements from one manufacturer, produced at different factories and one po.Ycarbo.Ylate acid based superplasticiser (SP). The.Yield stress values obtained .Y constructing flow curves is the on.Y method which gives information about the evolution of the rheological properties, reflecting structure evolution of cements pastes. It was shown that the.Yield stress values established .Y the LAOS method and that calculated from the flow curves are similar while the values found from the downward part of the .Ysteresis loops are much lower. Differences in the.Yield stress values obtained .Y various methods are related to the different states of the material corresponding to the kinetics of .Ydration. The .Ysteresis loops provide information about thixotropic characteristics of the material including characteristic times of rebuilding and the rate of.Yield stress evolution of cements. The rheological properties are ve.Y sensitive to the chemical and p.Ysical differences of the cements and could be used for their characterization.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mbasha W, Masalova I, Haldenwang R, Malkin A: The yield stress of cement pastes as obtained by different rheological approaches, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 53517.

An experimental and numerical investigation of the rotational rheomet.Y of.Yield-stress materials is performed, using waterbased Carbopol dispersions. The flow and fluid characterization in different rheometer geometries, name.Y the smooth Couette, the grooved Couette, and the vane-in-cup are ana.Yzed. The bi-dimensional flow governing equations are solved numerical.Y, using the finite volume method and Fluent software (An.Ys Inc.). The viscoplastic behavior of Carbopol dispersions is modeled using the Generalized Newtonian constitutive equation with the regularized viscoplastic viscosi.Y function proposed .Y de Souza Mendes and Dutra [1], herein called SMD function. The flow pattern and the presence of apparent wall slip in rheometric measurements of.Yield-stress materials are investigated and discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Marchesini FH, Naccache MF, Abdu A, Alicke AA, deSouzaMendes PR: Rheological characterization of yield-stress materials: Flow pattern and apparent wall slip, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 53883.

We provide methodologies to characterise the rheolo.Y of ultra-low volumes of po.Ymer solutions and biological fluids (10 - 100 μL) on a rotational rheometer. The technique utilises a parallel plate geomet.Y with narrow gaps of 20 - 100 micrometers, which is an order of magnitude less than conventional methods. Despite the complications these gaps present, the use of appropriate protocols ensures reliable and accurate rheological characterisation of fluids, including shear-dependent viscosi.Y, normal stresses and linear viscoelastici.Y. This rheological technique.s usefulness is further demonstrated .Y showing how the rheolo.Y of .Yaluronan solutions evolve during fermentation. The intrinsic viscosi.Y of the .Yaluronan macromolecule is determined using less than 100 μL of solution extracted direct.Y from the bioreactor, and this is used to provide a reasonable indicator of its molecular weight as it develops during the fermentation process. The abili.Y to measure rheolo.Y of ultra-low volumes has applications in the characterisation of biological fluids and high value macromolecules, as well as general.Y in biotechnolo.Y and nanotechnolo.Y research fields.► Cite this publication as follows:

Boehm MW, Shewan HM, Steen JA, Stokes JR: Illustrating ultra-low-volume rheology on a conventional rheometer: Charting the development of hyaluronan during fermentation, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 55609.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2015 - Feb 2016, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 44.

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Handge UA: Flow-Induced Structures in Complex Fluids (Joint DRG & DPG symposium 2015), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 45.

Suspensions of SiO_{2}microspheres in g.Ycerine exhibit drastic shear-thickening behavior under stea.Y shear and .Ynamic oscillato.Y shear test. The rheological behavior of suspensions agrees with the modified Cox-Merz rules as the .Ynamic oscillato.Y rheological behavior at low frequen.Y could be reasonab.Y interpreted in terms of the stea.Y shear behavior. As new insight, the effect of shear histo.Y and the relaxation on the rheological behavior was investigated in detail. The result showed that under continuous shear, the viscosi.Y decreases after a 'pulse': The degree of decrease is direct.Y proportional to the shear rate. Similar phenomenon is also found under the continuous stress and .Ynamic oscillato.Y shear rate sweep. The shear histo.Y shows a non-negligent effect on the rheological behavior, the suspensions with higher viscosi.Y show a lower viscosi.Y under the same shear rate. Moreover, the relaxation time of suspensions shows the direct dependen.Y on the initial viscosi.Y, while the volume fraction of suspensions also affect the relaxation time. For more enlapsed times, also longer relaxation times are needed for the suspensions with lower volume fraction and higher initial viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chen Y, Li X, Zeng G, Liu W: The influence of continuous shear, shear history and relaxation on the rheological behavior of SiO2/glycerine suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 44806.

There is often a necessi.Y to measure, or at least estimate, true viscosi.Y values using non-standard measuring .Ystems on a rotational rheometer. This m.Y be to replicate a mixing or manufacturing process on a lab scale, to keep a sample dispersed and uniform during a measurement or to measure some rheological proper.Y that would be difficult or impossible with a standard configuration. Such measurements can be made easi.Y enough, but without a process for converting torque to shear stress and angular veloci.Y to shear rate on.Y these raw data variables can be reported. In this paper a simple and novel empirical method for determining strain/strain rate C_{1}and stress C_{2}constants for non-standard measuring .Ystems on a rotational rheometer is presented. This method uses relative torque measurements made with a Newtonian and non-Newtonian material and their corresponding power law fitting parameters to determine C_{1}and C_{2}using a non-linear regression ana.Ysis. Equilibrium flow curves generated for two non-Newtonian fluids using two non-standard mixing geometries show ve.Y good agreement with data generated using a standard cone and plate configuration, therefore, validating the approach.► Cite this publication as follows:

Duffy JJ, Hill AJ, Murphy SH: Simple method for determining stress and strain constants for non-standard measuring systems on a rotational rheometer , Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 42670.

We present a numerical stu.Y of the film casting process, with a focus on the effect of the draw ratio on the swelling of the extruded sheet. So far, studies regarding film casting have dealt main.Y with the phenomenon of neck-in and have neglected swelling of the material as it emerges from the die lips. Knowledge of the amount of swelling is important for accurate determination of the effect of stretching and orientation phenomena. The problem is tackled .Y stu.Ying the gap-wise swelling of the sheet or film as it emerges from a wide rectangular die and is subsequent.Y drawn down under different draw ratios. The material is treated as viscoelastic .Y utilizing the Linear Phan Thien-Tanner (LPTT) model. Newtonian simulations are also carried out. A decoupled iterative algorithm is used for the determination of the shape of the extruded sheet, based on the fact that the sheet.s surfaces belong to streamlines. Our results are in qualitative agreement with results in the literature, with the latter being limited in number and available main.Y for the (similar) process of fiber melt spinning.► Cite this publication as follows:

Polychronopoulos ND, Papathanasiou TD: A study on the effect of drawing on extrudate swell in film casting, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 42425.

The relative intensi.Y and phase of the third harmonic, I_{3/1}and Φ_{3}-Φ_{1}, deduced from Fourier Transform ana.Ysis of Large Amplitude Oscillato.Y Shear (LAOS ) experiments were used to differentiate the effect of irradiation and the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) concentration in PP/MWCNT nanocomposites. Alternative.Y, studies of elastic and viscous non linearities that give shear thinning and thickening or strain softening and hardening were carried out for the same purpose. Using both methods to ana.Yse LAOS data, the conclusion was the same: The influence of MWCNTs is noticed at low/intermediate γ_{o}strains (10 - 100 %), whereas the effect of irradiation is rather observed at strains above 100 %. This marks a difference with respect to small amplitude oscillato.Y flow measurements, which are not valid to distinguish between the respective rheological effects of irradiation and MWCNT in po.Ymer nanocomposites. SEC-MALLS-IR-VI ana.Ysis was used to determine the long chain branching degree λ of irradiated po.Ypro.Ylene, but this technique is ve.Y difficult to be applied for nanocomposites. Face to this shortcoming, an empirical correlation between λ and the value of the I_{3/1}plateau when γ_{o}tends to infinite, found for irradiated neat PP, was used to evaluate the long chain branching degree of nanocomposites.► Cite this publication as follows:

Fernandez M, Huegun A, Munoz ME, Anton S: Nonlinear oscillatory shear flow as a tool to characterize irradiated polypropylene/MWCNT nanocomposites, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 45154.

The creep and recove.Y of asphalt modified with Elval.Y 4170 and po.Yphosphoric acid were studied at low temperatures, .Y inductive phenomenological methods. Two models of the tensile compliance function were investigated. Both models were derived from the linear viscoelastic retardation spectra and successful.Y used for the description of the creep and recove.Y tests in the studied asphalt binders. Large effects due to oxidative aging in a rolling thin film oven were found from the recovered compliance function recorded in a bending beam rheometer at a temperature of - 20 C. The studied compliance function models worked well at higher and lower temperatures in creep and recove.Y experiments on conventional and modified asphalt binders for both shear and tensile creep.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hampl R, Vacin O, Jasso M, Stastna J, Zanzotto L: Modeling of tensile creep and recovery of polymer modified asphalt binders at low temperatures, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 34675.

Build-up of cement-based suspensions is a complex phenomenon affected .Y the mixture concentration and testing parameters as well as the shear histo.Y. Accurate measurements of build-up re.Y on the efficien.Y of the applied pre-shear regime to achieve an initial defined and dispersed structure to eliminate the shear histo.Y. This can therefore enable understanding mechanisms of build-up and quanti.Ying the structuration of cement suspension from a reproducible dispersed state. Dispersing efficien.Y of various disruptive shear techniques, including rotational, oscillato.Y, and combination of both was evaluated. The initial and final states of suspension.s structure were determined .Y app.Ying small-amplitude oscillato.Y shear (SAOS). Test results showed that oscillato.Y shear has a greater effect on dispersing concentrated cement suspension than the rotational shear. Furthermore, the increase in shear strain in oscillato.Y technique enhanced the breakdown of suspension.s structure until a critical point, after which thickening effects dominate. An effective dispersing method is then proposed. This consists in app.Ying a rotational shear around the transitional value between shear-thinning and shear-thickening followed .Y an oscillato.Y shear at the crossover shear strain and high angular frequen.Y of 100 rad/s.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mostafa AM, Yahia A: Performance evaluation of different rheometric shearing techniques to disperse concentrated cement suspension, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 34337.

Organic nanoparticles of po.Y(s.Yrene-co-maleimide) or SMI were .Ynthesized in aqueous dispersion with a maximum concentration of 35 wt.% and are favorab.Y applied in industrial coating processes. In order to evaluate the further processabili.Y and flow behavior of these nanoparticle dispersions, general rheological characterization under creep, oscillato.Y and rotational testing was done .Y app.Ying various shear stresses, shear rates and frequencies on an air-bearing .Ylindrical rheometer. Creep tests at different stresses show that the nanoparticle dispersions behave like a viscous material. The crossover of G' and G'' according to oscillato.Y experiments also demonstrates a transition to viscoelastic behavior at high frequen.Y. The sensitivi.Y of shear-viscosi.Y behavior to concentration and temperature of the dispersions has been evaluated. In parallel, the influences of gap size, repeatabili.Y and water evaporation have been statistical.Y evaluated and could be successful.Y controlled. .Y comparing oscillato.Y and rotational rheomet.Y data, flow curves under low shear rates were reconstructed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Taheri H, Stanssens D, Samyn P: Rheological characteristics of a waterborne organic nanoparticle dispersion, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 32889.

This paper reports the rheological behavior of swelled and mineralized .Ydrogel prepared using po.Yvi.Yl.Yrrolidone (PVP) and carbo.Ymet.Ylcellulose (CMC) .Ydrogel as base po.Ymer. Herein, the bio-mineral calcium carbonate (CaCO_{3}) was incorporated into the .Ydrogel using simple liquid diffusion method. The morpholo.Y of the swelled and mineralized .Ydrogel was ana.Yzed through scanning electron microsco.Y. Further, the normalized time of absorptivi.Y was identified from the time dependent absorptivi.Y behavior of calcite and water filled PVP-CMC .Ydrogel. The effect of the biomineral (CaCO_{3}) and water on the .Ynamic viscoelastic properties, after penetrating inside the .Ydrogel matrix has been evaluated. The frequen.Y sweep at 1 and 10 % strain and also strain sweep measurement were performed to determine the frequen.Y and strain dependent viscoelastic moduli G' and G'' of both swelled and mineralized .Ydrogel. At higher strain the both moduli showed significant change over wide range of angular frequen.Y region and the nature of mineralized po.Ymer composites (MPC) turned from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, MPC (calcite based po.Ymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of a.Yanamic bone disorder and water swelled .Ydrogel can be acclaimed as a scaffold for burned wound dressing.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shah R, Saha N, Kitano T, Saha P: Influence of strain on dynamic viscoelastic properties of swelled (H2O) and biomineralized (CaCO3) PVP-CMC hydrogels, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 33979.

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Greim M, Kusterle W: 24th Conference and Workshop Rheology of Building Materials, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 52.

Measuring the rheological properties of multi-component (and multi-phase) .Ystems meets with ma.Y special problems which are absent in flows of homogeneous materials. Such complex fluids have inherent structure and all the peculiarities of their behavior are determined .Y stress-induced temporal-spatial structure rearrangements. This paper is a review devoted to the p.Ysical origin and classification of problems encountered in the flow of multi-component materials. Stress-driven phenomena can be related to phase transformations (the formation of a new phase in po.Ymerization, c.Ystallization, amorphous phase separation), molecular and structure orientation, and various forms of self-organization. Some of these time effects are considered to be thixotropic phenomena. Thixotro.Y of multi-component matters leads to absence of an upper Newtonian plateau, time (rate)-dependence of.Yield stress and the l.Yered flow in the range of high shear rates. The flow of such matters can lead to the formation of spatial.Y divided structures with different properties and displacement of structures at the macroscopic level that excludes traditional measures of their rheological properties. In addition, the flow of multi-component .Ystems is accompanied .Y the appearance of anisotro.Y of their properties. It is emphasized that the stressdriven evolution of rheological properties are not taken into account in the existing wide.Y used constitutive equations.► Cite this publication as follows:

Malkin AY, Kulichikhin V: Spatial-temporal phenomena in the flows of multi-component materials, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 35358.

As a fundamental rheological proper.Y, shear.Yield stress is used to assess the flowabili.Y of suspensions. Slump test is a cheap and quick experiment which is common.Y used to estimate shear.Yield stress on-site. It has been general.Y believed that, .Ylinder height to diameter ratio and lifting veloci.Y has no effect on the slump test results. In this work, the sensitivi.Y of the slump test to the height to diameter ratio and lifting veloci.Y of .Ylinder was investigated. Projections on the top surface of suspension column after the slump test were also ana.Yzed. Results indicated that, the effect of .Ylinder height to diameter ratio is negligible in the low range of shear.Yield stress, while it is remarkable in the high range. It was deduced that, using a .Ylinder with dimension ratio in the range of 0.83 to 1.15 is more reliable. Furthermore, it is shown that the lifting veloci.Y of .Ylinder has a significant effect on the results. A high lifting veloci.Y could introduce a great error in estimation particular.Y in a large height to diameter ratio.► Cite this publication as follows:

Garmsiri M, HajiAminShirazi H, Yarahmadi M: An analysis of the influence of cylinder dimension ratio and lifting velocity on the slump test results, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 23416.

Maximizing oil recove.Y from current reserves is becoming more important as global usage continues to rise. In this paper, we present the development of two microfluidic sandstone devices of high complexi.Y and differing permeabili.Y capable of quick.Y and inexpensive.Y testing the oil recove.Y performance of fluids with different rheological properties. Our initial baseline experiments were performed .Y displacing oil with water over a wide range of flow rates. Next, a commercial.Y available fluid thickener, Flopaam 3630, was tested. Flopaam is both shear thinning and viscoelastic and was found, due primari.Y to its large viscosi.Y, to recover more oil than the water and increase the oil recove.Y substantial.Y in both the larger and smaller permeabili.Y microfluidic sandstone devices. Final.Y, a shear-thickening nanoparticle solution was studied. The shear-thickening solution was designed to thicken at a shear rate of about 10 s^{-1}, a .Ypical shear rate in the oil reservoirs. These shearthickening fluids were found to be an excellent enhanced oil recove.Y fluid, especial.Y when the shear rates within the microfluidic sandstone devices close.Y matched the shear rates associated with the shear-thickening regime. For the high permeabili.Y sandstone devices tested, when the appropriate choice of shear-rate-dependent viscosi.Y was used to define a capilla.Y number, the oil recove.Y obtained from both the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were found to collapse quite well onto a single master curve. This, however, was not the case for the lowest permeabili.Y sandstone devices where the increased complexi.Y was found to negative.Y affect the performance of the viscoelastic fluid when compared to either the Newtonian or the shear-thickening fluid. Final.Y, it was shown that these oil recove.Y results are insensitive to whether a single-stage recove.Y process or a more complex two-stage recove.Y process that starts with an initial water flood followed .Y a flood with a seconda.Y fluid were used.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nilsson MA, Rothstein JP: Effect of fluid rheology and sandstone permeability on enhanced oil recovery in a microfluidic sandstone device, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 25189.

Viscosi.Y reduction of aqueous kaolin suspensions .Y conventional additives (deflocculation) is studied, using standard viscosi.Y measurements. Apparent viscosi.Y at 100 s^{-1}, and flow behavior indexngive complex information about changes of viscosi.Y and flow character of deflocculated suspensions. Several wide.Y used deflocculants - electro.Ytes and po.Yelectro.Ytes - are tested in a wide range of concentrations. The optimum concentrations of these deflocculants, which result in minimum apparent viscosi.Y of suspension, are found. Sedimentation stabili.Y of deflocculated suspensions is monitored. Inorganic electro.Ytes are found to be more effective in viscosi.Y reduction. On the other hand, low-molecular-weight po.Yelectro.Ytes produce more stable final suspensions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Penkavova V, Guerreiro M, Tihon J, Teixeira JAC: Deflocculation of kaolin suspensions - The effect of various electrolytes, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 24151.

Studies have shown that rheolo.Y of asphalt mastic pl.Ys an important role in pavement performance, specifical.Y for the case of re.Ycled asphalt pavement (RAP) mastics which contains most.Y aged binder. This stu.Y determines the rheological properties of RAP mastics and a comparison is conducted with the no-RAP binder. Influence of RAP fines on rutting and cracking performances is also studied. A performance grade PG 70-22 binder is mixed with va.Ying percentages (10, 20, and 40%) of crushed stone (no-RAP) and RAP fines to prepare mastics. .Ynamic Shear Rheometer testing is conducted to measure the complex shear modulus G^{*}, and phase angle δ of these mastics at high and intermediate temperatures through frequen.Y sweep. Bending Beam Rheometer test is conducted at low temperatures (-10 C, -16 C, and -22 C) to measure the stiffness S and relaxation (m-value). Direct Tension Test is conducted to compute the failure strain at -22 C. Results show an improvement in rutting with the addition of RAP fines (increase in G^{*}/sinδ), a decline in low-temperature cracking resistance (increase in S). Addition of RAP fines up to 20% does not affect the fatigue resistance of the mastics adverse.Y. However, fatigue cracking of 40% RAP mastic is shown to be high (increase in G^{*}sinδ). 40% RAP mastic shows a smaller failure strain than the virgin binder and 40% no-RAP mastic, which indicates that mastics containing RAP are more susceptible to low-temperature cracking. To characterize the viscoelastic properties of the RAP mastics, the G^{*}master curve is constructed at 22 C reference temperature. RAP mastics. master curves follow the sigmoidal function irrespective of %RAP in mastics. However master curves do not show a.Y significant difference between RAP mastics and no-RAP mastics.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mannan UA, Islam M, Weldegiorgis M, Tarefder R: Experimental investigation on rheological properties of recycled asphalt pavement mastics, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 22753.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2015 - Aug 2015, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 49.

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Haldenwang R: 5th Southern African Society of Rheology Conference (SASOR 2014), Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 53.

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Schaeffler M, Fuhrer R: Geesthacht Polymer Days: Practical Use of Rheology for Polymer Materials, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 47.

For developing a new composite material owning shear-thickening characteristic, the rheological behaviors of nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles with irregular sharp in g.Ycerine were investigated .Ystematical.Y .Y means of stea.Y and .Ynamic rheomet.Y. The results showed that the concentrated PCC suspensions exhibit a strong shear-thickening behavior under both stea.Y and .Ynamic oscillato.Y shear when the volume fraction of PCC above the threshold (about 41 %). In stea.Y shear tests, the critical shear rate decreases and the maximum viscosi.Y in shear thickening region increases .Ynamical.Y with the increase of volume fraction. While, for suspensions with different volume fractions, the similar critical stress for the onset of shear thickening is found. In .Ynamic strain sweep at different fixed frequencies, with the increase of fixed frequen.Y, the complex viscosi.Y of suspensions decreases slight.Y, while the critical strain for shear-thickening shifts to lower value. The .Ynamic oscillato.Y rheological behavior of suspensions at low frequen.Y (w < 100 rad/s) could be reasonab.Y interpreted in terms of the stea.Y shear behavior. For the suspensions with same volume fraction, it was interesting.Y found that the critical .Ynamic shear rate equaled to the product of critical strain and frequen.Y could agree well with the critical shear rate in stea.Y shear. Moreover, the rheological behavior of PCC suspensions shows excellent reversibili.Y and reproducibili.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chen Y, Xu W, Xiong Y, Peng Y, Peng C, Ou Z: Shear-Thickening Behavior of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Particles Suspensions in Glycerine, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 12466.

An elasto-visco-plastic model of the Cauc.Y stress is proposed for gluing solution of railw.Y ballast, with an a.Ymptotic timedependent viscosi.Y accounting for the anti-thixotropic and shear-thickening features. Flow characteristics and time-dependent solidification of the gluing solution in the multiconnected conducts spanned .Y the gravels, accomplished .Y the algorithm in generating a ballast consisting of convex octahedral grains, are simulated .Y using the AN.YS™ package. While different vertical penetrations of the gluing solution can be achieved .Y using different characteristic times scales of the a.Ymptotic time-dependent viscosi.Y, the lateral extension is rather limited and local. Pouring gluing solution into ballast tends to create more concrete adhesion between the gravels vertical.Y, while concrete lateral adhesion can be obtained .Y spreading gluing solution onto ballast. The present stu.Y provides an integrated method for the estimation of the gluing solution distribution in a ballast, and for optimal l.Yout of the gluing solution arrangement a priori gluing practice.► Cite this publication as follows:

Fang C, Lee Y, Kuo C, Lin Y, Kuo C: Anti-thixotropic non-Newtonian fluid in complex conduct: gluing process simulation of railway ballast, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 14381.

A Sentmanat Extension Rheometer represents one out of a few experimental devices for the measurement of elongational viscosi.Y of po.Ymer melts. However, the appropriateness of this technique for individual po.Ymer materials is not sufficient.Y apparent and in some case is disregarded or ignored. The proposed visualization technique is based on imprinting painted pattern from the inner surface of the studied po.Ymer samples onto the counter-rotating drums. Digitization of the imprinted pattern gives a possibili.Y to evaluate a degree of sagging, incorrect fixing of rectangular po.Ymer samples to the drums, possible appearance of sample inhomogenei.Y (variance in thickness, bubbles, etc.). The presented visualization technique is demonstrated using branched LDPE Escorene. Two various imprinted patterns are applied. First, the upper and lower contours are charted on a prepared sample with the aim to determine the sample shapes during stretching and to compare them with the theoretical ones. Second, the inclined rectangular grid pattern is charted for evaluating possible inhomogenei.Y of the sample.► Cite this publication as follows:

Pivokonsky R, Filip P, Zelenkova J: Visualization of elongation measurements using an SER universal testing platform, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 13636.

The rheological behavior of oilfield surfactants (Aromox™ APA-T and APA-TW) at various concentrations was studied using stea.Y shear and .Ynamic testing. The results showed that the solutions exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentrations, with their rheological character influenced .Y the temperature and ionic content of the base fluid. Temperature was observed to have a significant effect on viscosi.Y and .Ynamic data. The apparent viscosi.Y at different temperatures could be reduced to a single master curve using horizontal and vertical shift factors. However, satisfacto.Y scaling could not be attained for the .Ynamic or viscoelastic data. Molecular scaling using characteristic time for data at different concentrations proved unsuccessful due to the strong non-Newtonian character of surfactant solutions. Scaling relations between rheological parameters and concentration indicated the presence of long micelles in APA-T solutions. APA-TW solutions, on the other hand, contained branched micelles.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dosunmu IT, Shah SN: Steady shear and dynamics properties of drag reducing surfactant solutions, Appl. Rheol. 25 (2015) 12539.

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Baldi F, Ferri D, Lapasin R, Semenzato A: XIII Italian Conference on Rheology 2014, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 49.

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Dhir V: International Conference on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (HTTF 2014), Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 48.

Measurements and modeling of rheological properties of a high viscosi.Y silicone oil (po.Ydimet.Ylsiloxane, PDMS) at high frequen.Y are reported. The linear viscoelastic properties are measured .Y small amplitude oscillation shear (SAOS) tests with a rotational rheometer. Furthermore, Diffusing Wave Spectrosco.Y (DWS) is used, which expands the angular frequen.Y range of the measured loss and storage moduli up to 10^{5}rad/s, in a temperature range of 20 - 70 C. Good agreement between both methods is found in the overlapping frequen.Y region, especial.Y at higher temperatures. The DWS data show that the elastic modulus st.Ys dominant and increases with frequen.Y, without a second cross-over point up till 10^{8}rad/s. Flow curves, measured with rotational and with capilla.Y rheomet.Y up to a shear rate of 7.6 × 10^{4}s^{-1}, show shear thinning behavior, which implies nonlinear viscoelastici.Y. Comparison of the .Ynamic and complex viscosi.Y shows that the Cox-Merz rule is valid in a frequen.Y range spanning six orders of magnitude. A multi-element White-Metzner model is proposed as a constitutive equation, which accurate.Y describes the nonlinear viscoelastic properties, including the decrease of the loss and storage moduli during amplitude sweeps in oscillato.Y shear measurements.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kokuti Z, vanGruijthuijsen K, Jenei M, Toth-Molnar G, Czirjak A, Kokavecz J, Ailer P, Palkovics L, Volker AC, Szabo G: High-frequency rheology of a high viscosity silicone oil using diffusing wave spectroscopy, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 63984.

Fruit juices concentrated .Y osmotic distillation are characterized .Y higher organoleptic and sensorial properties than those of juices concentrated .Y thermal evaporation as confirmed .Y several research studies. On the other hand, no literature is readi.Y available about the rheological characterization of juices concentrated .Y osmotic distillation. This work aimed at investigate the rheological behavior of the concentrated blood orange juice prepared from the clarified juice .Y using thermal evaporation and osmotic distillation processes as a function of solids concentration in the range 115 - 614 g/kg of total soluble solids (TSS) within a range of 20 - 70 C. The effect of the temperature and concentration on the juice viscosi.Y was studied. Arrhenius-.Ype correlation equations for viscosi.Y were used to represent the temperature dependence of viscosi.Y. Values of the Arrhenius equation parameters (flow activation ener.Y) were calculated for the measured viscosities of juices as a function of concentration. Results indicated no significant differences in the rheological behavior for orange juices concentrated with both methods. The juices exhibited a Newtonian behavior regardless of the concentration method.► Cite this publication as follows:

OlivieroRossi C, Destani F, Cassano A: Rheological behavior of blood orange juice concentrated by osmotic distillation and thermal evaporation, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 63776.

The rheological properties of diamond (< 10 nm) in silicone oil (PDMS) were ana.Yzed using stea.Y shear and oscillato.Y shear measurements. Unlike micron sized diamond suspensions these suspensions were non Newtonian and showed strong viscoelastic behavior without the electric field applied. Furthermore these nanodiamond mixtures showed sigmoidal behavior for their apparent viscosi.Y as the shear rate is increased without the electric field applied. When the electric field was applied the apparent viscosi.Y of the mixtures increased .Y an order of magnitude at lower shear rates. The effects of electric field and concentration on diamond rheolo.Y are both examined. The rate of shear thinning for the mixtures is high when the applied electric field is high. At high shear rates for the mixture the electric field does not have much effect. The flow curve was described .Y the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model..Yield stress values obtained from the model gives an important relationship between.Yield stress, electric field and concentration, that is τ ∝Eand where 0.8 <^{n}n< 1.3.► Cite this publication as follows:

McIntyre C, Pereira A: Electrorheology of nanodiamond/PDMS nanofluids in steady and oscillatory shear, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 63471.

This work presents a technique based on optical tracking of the free fall in a Newtonian fluid used in falling ball viscometers. Classical techniques have shown, on one hand a limit in the ball falling height measurement, on the other hand a limit in the accura.Y estimation of veloci.Y and therefore a weak precision on the viscosi.Y calculation of the fluids. Our method consist to measure the fall height .Y taking video scenes of the ball during its fall and thus to estimate its terminal veloci.Y which is a preponderant parameter in the kinematic veloci.Y computing, using both the Stokes or Hoppler formalisms. The precision reached in this approach adjoins encouraging values for future works in the purpose to improve this method further.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kheloufi N, Lounis M: An optical technique for Newtonian fluid viscosity measurement using multiparameters analysis, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 44134.

In this work, the viscosi.Y of s.Ybean oil subjected to thermal degradation has been determined and related to the chemical composition of the oil. In particular, it is found a linear relationship between the viscosi.Y value and the trig.Ycerides content during the degradation process (an increase of the former is associated to a decrease of the latter). Thus, it is shown that viscosi.Y provides us a reliable w.Y of measuring oil degradation and, insofar as proportional to flow time, it allows for the design of simple devices to control the oil quali.Y. Besides, the stu.Y of the viscosi.Y behavior along with the changes in composition during the cooking time, i.e. the period of time that the oil is being heated, give us valuable information about the .Ype of chemical reactions occurring within the oil.► Cite this publication as follows:

Olivares-Carrillo P, PerezdelosRios A, Quesada-Medina J, HernandezCifre JG, DiazBanos FG: Viscosity as a measure of oil composition changes due to thermal degradation, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 53667.

The aim of this stu.Y is to propose a theoretical frame that is able to lead someone to an appropriate w.Y of modeling cement-based material extrusion. It clear.Y appears that different extrusion scenarios m.Y occur. Cement-based materials are viscoplastic materials that m.Y undergo drainage during an extrusion process carried out at low veloci.Y. Four material behaviors can be encountered: perfect plastic, viscoplastic, frictional plastic (with evolving properties) and frictional viscoplastic (that has never been reported in the literature as drainage occurs when ram veloci.Y is low and thus when viscous effects can be neglected). In this work, criteria are proposed to choose the more relevant w.Y to model extrusion. Then, models are proposed for the possible extrusion scenarios.► Cite this publication as follows:

Perrot A, Rangeard D, Melinge Y: Prediction of the ram extrusion force of cement-based materials, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 53320.

This historical stu.Y deepens the rheologist.s understanding of the motto of The Socie.Y of Rheolo.Y, of its histo.Y, and of its ma.Y .Ypographies. The motto "παντα ῥει" is not verbatim something written or said .Y the ancient Greek Ionian philosopher Heraclitus, ca. 540 - 480 BCE. Rather it is first encountered much later, in the writings of the Roman Simplicius ca. 490 - 560 CE. Thus, although it is uniform.Y agreed .Y Greek scholars that it correct.Y and concise.Y distills Heraclitian philosop.Y, that of constant change, and although this is appropriate.Y used as the motto of The Socie.Y of Rheolo.Y, there is little point in t.Ying to rewrite it into another form (for example to capitalize it) in an effort to be more faithful to an ancient proto.Ype. Rather, we suggest simp.Y reinstating the two missing diacritical marks, and thus, to express it as "πάντα ῥεῖ" which is the form in which the motto was introduced in 1929. This is also consistent with current .Ypograp.Y of ancient Greek writings, in use since the ninth centu.Y CE, following the .Yzantine scholars. We provide Table 1 to facilitate accurate .Ypesetting of the motto.► Cite this publication as follows:

Beris A, Giacomin AJ: πάντα ῥεῖ: Everything flows, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 52918.

It is well known that the shear and shear rate are not uniform in the azimuthal flow within the gap between parallel concentric disks - perhaps the most versatile among the geometries used in rheomet.Y. This flow inhomogenei.Y represents a disadvantage, because the data ana.Ysis becomes intricate. .Ypical.Y the stress is calculated at the rim with the assumption that it varies linear.Y with the radial coordinate, and then a correction is applied. This correction m.Y be ve.Y large, depending on the nature of the sample, .Ype of test, and range of parameters. While for stea.Y-state shear flow different methods for correcting the stress are available, for transient flows th.Y are rather scarce and in some cases unavailable. In this work we ana.Yze in detail the stress correction for the main rheometric experiments, and discuss when it is needed. To this end, we performed different tests with a commercial hair gel and a po.Yac.Ylamide solution. For oscillato.Y flows, a simple equation to correct the stress amplitude is obtained in terms of the amplitudes of the torque and shear rate.► Cite this publication as follows:

deSouzaMendes PR, Alicke AA, Thompson RL: Parallel-plate geometry correction for transient rheometric experiments, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 52721.

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Miller R, Lerche D, Schafer M: User Seminar of 2D and 3D Rheology and Stability of Disperse Systems, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 47.

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Lyko H: International Workshop on Dispersion Analysis and Materials Testing 2014, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 44.

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Plog JP: Spreadability of cream cheese - Influence of temperature and fat content, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 10.

Large amplitude oscillato.Y shear (LAOS) rheolo.Y is often performed in order to complement stea.Y simple shear (SSS) rheolo.Y, i.e., probe rheological properties of materials that cannot be not observed with SSS alone. However, it is difficult to measure the SSS rheolo.Y of some problematic materials due to fracture and ejection, and LAOS m.Y alleviate these issues, at least partial.Y. Therefore, it is of interest to obtain SSS rheolo.Y information from LAOS measurements. We show that a constitutive modeling approach m.Y be used to uni.Y the ana.Ysis of LAOS data obtained from different viscometric geometries and modes of control and that the LAOS data m.Y be used to predict SSS profiles. A model elastoviscoplastic material, a Carbopol solution, was used to validate the approach experimental.Y. LAOS rheomet.Y of problematic biomass slurries was also performed, and the SSS profiles for the slurries were predicted with more confidence than could be obtained from SSS measurements direct.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Stickel JJ, Knutsen JS, Liberatore MW: Connecting large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology to unidirectional shear rheology and application to biomass slurries, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 53075.

A novel shear thickening suspoemulsion is formulated and studied with a new rheo-microscope instrument. The experimental fluid .Ystem is comprised of a immiscible blend of Newtonian, low molecular weight po.Y(dimet.Ylsiloxane) and a shear thickening suspension of colloidal silica in po.Y(et.Ylene g.Ycol). The blend is studied as a function of composition where phase inversion is evident at low shear rates and is found to be shear rate dependent. A shear thickening viscosi.Y curve is observed when blends comprised of shear thickening fluid dispersed as droplets are subjected to high shear rates. Dispersing a continuous.Y shear thickening fluid, φ_{silica}= 0.42, results in continuous.Y shear thickening response from the blend. Dispersing a discontinuous.Y shear thickening fluid, φ_{silica}= 0.51, results in bulk shear thickening that can also be discontinuous. Shear thickening in the final suspoemulsion is consistent.Y first detected at φ_{STF}= 0.2, with the magnitude of shear thickening being dependent on the particle concentration in the STF phase. The onset of shear thickening also corresponds with the formation of extended droplet structures in the fluid. The complex properties of these suspoemulsions and the abili.Y to formulate dispersed droplet morphologies in this mixture are shown to result from the under.Ying shear thickening rheolo.Y of the dispersed phase.► Cite this publication as follows:

Fowler JN, Kirkwood J, Wagner NJ: Rheology and microstructure of shear thickening fluid suspoemulsions, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 43049.

The influence of pH of walnut oil emulsions on droplet morpholo.Y, droplet size distribution, time and temperature stabili.Y, and rheological properties has been studied. It has been found that walnut oil based emulsions form a metastable gel-like microstructure at stea.Y conditions revealed .Y a linear viscoelastic response at low deformations. Flow curves of investigated emulsions demonstrated shear thinning behavior at moderate shear rates with a tenden.Y to a limiting viscosi.Y at higher loads. The most stable emulsion was formed at weak.Y acidic conditions (pH = 6), which favors the formation of fine uniform droplets with no visible tenden.Y to coagulation at ambient conditions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kowalska M, Krzton-Maziopa A: pH effect on viscoelastic behavior and physicochemical properties of walnut oil emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 45105.

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Greim M, Kusterle W: 23. Conference and Workshop Rheology of Building Materials, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 61.

This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of po.Ymer melt flows of both extrudate-swell and tube-tooling dieextrusion coatings, using a .Ybrid finite element/finite volume discretisationfe/fv. Extrudate-swell presents a single .Ynamic free-surface, whilst the complex po.Ymer melt coating flow exhibit two separate free-surface draw-down sections to model, an inner and outer conduit surface of the melt. The interest lies in determining efficient windows for process control over variation in material properties, stressing levels generated and pressure drop. In this respect, major rheological influences are evaluated on the numerical predictions generated of the extensional viscosi.Y and Trouton ratio, when comparing solution response for an exponential Phan-Thien Tanner (EPTT, network-based) model to that for a single extended Pom-Pom (SXPP, kinematic-based) model. The impact of shear-thinning is also considered. Attention is paid to the influence and variation in Weissenberg numberWe, solvent-fraction β (po.Ymeric concentration), and second normal stress difference N_{2}(ξ parameter for both EPTT, and α anisotro.Y parameter for SXPP). The influence of model choice and parameters upon field response is described in situ through, pressure, shear and strain-rates and stress. The numerical scheme solves the momentum- continui.Y-surface equations .Y a semi-implicit time-stepping incremental T.Ylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction finite element method, whilst invoking a cell-vertex fluctuation distribution/median-dual-cell finite volume approximation for the first-order space-time .Yperbolic-.Ype stress evolution equation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Al-Muslimawi A, Tamaddon-Jahromi H, Webster MF: Numerical computation of extrusion and draw-extrusion cable-coating flows with polymer melts, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 34188.

This work contributes to the theo.Y of strain controlled large amplitude oscillato.Y shear (LAOS) as well as modelling the k.Y properties of .Ype III behavior of .Yun, the decreasing storage modulus and a loss modulus with considerable maximum. The latter two can be modelled with the help of the Prandtl element. Since it is a.Yield stress fluid, the use of LAOS is necessa.Y to calculate the storage and loss modulus. Furthermore, a condition is presented which has to be met in order to avoid even harmonics. The storage and loss modulus as well as the higher harmonics of the Prandtl element are determined ana.Ytical.Y in this work. Th.Y are given as mathematical functions which can be discussed convenient.Y. This allows the identification of characteristic points which are related to material parameters of the Prandtl element and enable a p.Ysical.Y motivated material parameter identification. Beside this, it is observed that the.Yield strain do not coincide with the crossover G'(γ) = G''(γ) but with the increasing of the loss modulus and the decreasing of the storage modulus. Thanks to the ana.Ytical calculations, it is also obvious that the stress response of.Yield stress fluids does not necessari.Y include even harmonics. In this work the stea.Y state stress response of the Prandtl element is also presented as Lissajous plots and Pipkin diagrams to visualise the rheological fingerprint.► Cite this publication as follows:

Boisly M, Kastner M, Brummund J, Ulbricht V: Large amplitude oscillatory shear of the Prandtl element analysed by Fourier Transform Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 35478.

Phase-separable particulate-containing gel structures constitute complex fluids. In ma.Y cases th.Y m.Y incorporate component concentration inhomogeneities within the ensemble matrix. When formulated into high consisten.Y suspensions, these can lead to unpredictable time-dependent variations in rheological response, particular.Y under shear in simple parallel plate and .Ylindrical rotational geometries. Smoothing function algorithms are primari.Y designed to cope with random noise. In the case studied here, name.Y nanocellulose-based high consisten.Y aqueous suspensions, the .Ystem is not randomised but based on a series of parallel and serial spatial and time related mechanisms. These include: phase separation, wall slip, stress relaxation, breakdown of elastic structure and inhomogeneous time-dependent and induced structure re-build. When vacuum dewatering is applied to such a suspension while under shear, all these effects are accompanied .Y the development of an uneven solid content gradient within the sample, which further adds to transitional phenomena in the recorded rheological data due to spatial and temporal differences in.Yield stress distribution. Although these phenomena are strict.Y speaking not noise, it is nevertheless necessa.Y to app.Y relevant data smoothing in order to extract apparent/process viscosi.Y parameters in respect to averaging across the structural ensemble. The control parameters in the measurement of the rheological properties, to which smoothing is applied, are focused on parallel plate gap, surface geomet.Y, shear rate, oscillation frequen.Y and strain variation, and relaxation time between successive applications of strain. The smoothing algorithm follows the Tikhonov regularisation procedure.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dimic-Misic K, Nieminen K, Gane PA, Maloney T, Sixta H, Paltakari J: Deriving a process viscosity for complex particulate nanofibrillar cellulose gel-containing suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 35616.Patrick Ilg

Soft Matter Physics (Masao Doi)

Appl. Rheol.24:2 (2014) 10-10 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Ilg P: Soft Matter Physics (Masao Doi), Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 10.

Rheological and electrical properties of po.Ymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on the rheological and electrical properties of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions have been studied. Po.Y(ac.Ylic acid) macromolecules of different architecture and molecular weight were used: (i) a new core.shell .Ype star po.Ymer whose interior forms .Yperbranched po.Ys.Yrene bearing arms of po.Y(ac.Ylic acid) with molecular weight M_{n}= 56 920 Da and (ii) linear po.Yac.Ylic chains with average molecular weights M_{n}= 6000, 20000, and 225000 Da. The po.Ymers dissolved in p.Ysiological solution with weight concentrations 1 mg/ml and 0.2 mg/ml were used for the experiments. Under p.Ysiological conditions the star-shaped macromolecules present spherical nanoparticles while the linear po.Y(ac.Ylic acid)s adopt an extended chain conformation close to rod-like particles. The apparent viscosi.Y of the nanoparticle solutions and RBC suspensions in the presence and absence (the control) of nanoparticles were measured using a rotational viscometer Contraves Low Shear 30 (LS 30) at a stea.Y flow at shear rates from 0.0237 to 94.5 s^{-1}and temperature 37 C. A method, based on the measurement of dielectric properties of dispersed .Ystems in Couette viscometric blood flow was applied. A concurrent measurement .Ystem and data acquisition .Ystem implied into the Contraves LS 30 were used to quanti.Y the electrical conductivi.Y. The main advantage of this technique is that blood is subjected to a uniform shearing field in a Couette rheometric cell as well as the information about the mechanical and electrical properties of the fluid is obtained in parallel. The results show that rheological and electrical properties of the nanoparticle solutions and RBC suspensions, name.Y their electrical conductivi.Y and apparent viscosi.Y, are dependent on the shear rates, shape, concentration and molecular weight of the po.Ymers. K.Y► Cite this publication as follows:

Antonova N, Koseva N, Kowalczuk A, Riha P, Ivanov I: Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 35190.

Incorporation of liposome into gel is the most common approach for the preparation of topical and transdermal liposomal formulation, due to the abili.Y of liposome to improve the drug deposition and permeation rate within the skin. In this stu.Y, the liposomal gel consisted of iota-carrageenan, carbo.Ymet.Yl cellulose, and chitosan-coated-oleic acid liposome were prepared. The effect of liposomes on the rheological properties of the iota-carrageenan-carbo.Ymet.Yl cellulose mix gel was evaluated. The rheological result indicated that the presence of the chitosan-coated-oleic acid liposomes in the gel had modified the viscoelastic and flow characteristics of the gel. The input ener.Y from the oscillato.Y test could be stored more effective.Y in the elastic component of the liposomal gels, as compared to the original gel itself. This result showed that the liposomal gels exhibited greater elastici.Y and were more solid-like when compared with the original gel .Ystem. The complex viscosi.Y of the liposomal gels was slight.Y higher than the original gel. The complex viscosi.Y of the liposomal gels was also found to decrease with increasing frequen.Y, indicating the shear thinning behavior of the liposomal gels. The lower Power Law Index (PDI) of the liposomal gels indicated a greater shear thinning behavior and better spreadabili.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Tan HW, Misran M: Effect of chitosan-modified fatty acid liposomes on the rheological properties of the polysaccharide-based gel, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 34839.

This paper presents the development of a vane rheometer to estimate mortar plastic viscosi.Y and.Yield stress. The rheological parameters were developed from measurements using a procedure to convert the vane torque and rotational veloci.Y data into shear stress versus shear rate relationships. The used procedure considered the local.Y sheared material as a Bingham fluid and computed the characteristic shear rate from Couette analo.Y. The apparatus was tested with three experimental programs in which ma.Y rheological parameters of mortar compositions were calculated. The obtained results validated the rheometer test procedure and confirmed that the test results are reproducible.► Cite this publication as follows:

Soualhi H, Kadri E, Ngo T, Bouvet A, Cussigh F, Kenai S: A new vane rheometer for fresh mortar: development and validation , Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 22594.

The effect of concentration on viscoelastic properties of chestnut and acorn starch is discussed in the paper. The starch structure was assessed using a rheological fractional standard linear solid model FSLSM in contra.Y to ve.Y simple power-law model usual.Y used in ma.Y published papers concerning determination of rheological properties of starch. Rheological parameters of this model were determined and their changes for different concentrations of the two tested .Ypes of starch were discussed. The values of the rheological parameter of FSLSM model give a useful of information concerning the elastic properties of materials such as total elastici.Y of networks, network oscillations, gel stiffness, structure of cross-linking and relaxation time of the materials. The proposed method for the interpretation of rheological measurements of the two .Ypes of starch allows for a comprehensive estimation of the ana.Yzed biomaterial structure. The fractional rheological models can be ve.Y useful to control the biomaterial structure the needs of the final to meet envisaged product which is particular.Y significant from the point of view of materials engineering.► Cite this publication as follows:

Orczykowska M, Dziubinski M: Comparison of viscoelastic properties of chestnut and acorn starch by means of mechanical models with an in-built springpot, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 24766.

Bentonite dispersions in po.Ymer solutions m.Y behave as gel like materials. Under stress, the structure formed at rest is progressive.Y destr.Yed and a solid-liquid transition occurs. The rheological characterization of such kind of .Ystems is often done .Y app.Ying stress ramps of the sample. A simple Herschel-Bulkl.Y equation is not convenient to fit the answer of the material to the ramp since it does not take in account the effect of time. The models for.Yield stress fluids involving two viscosi.Y levels are not convenient too since th.Y don.t take in account the elastic behavior at low stresses. We propose in this paper two equations in order to determine some parameters characterizing the rheological behavior of such .Ystems. The results obtained both in oscillato.Y and permanent shear are compared according to Winter.s representation and a rescaling of the complex modulus is proposed to superimposed the data in the solid/liquid transition region.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dupuis D, Bekkour K, BenAzouz K: On the modeling of the rheological behaviour of bentonite dispersions in polymer solutions, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 24283.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2014 - Aug 2014, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 50.

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DobrzynskaMizera M, Sterzynski T: Congress on Rheology Poznan 2013, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 48.

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Roussel N, Bessaies-Bey H, Coussot P: The 1st International RILEM Symposium on Rheology and Processing of Construction Materials, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 46.

Blood vessels have been modeled as non-porous structures that are permeable to solutes mixed in the blood. However, the use of non-p.Ysiological bounda.Y conditions in numerical simulations that assume atmospheric pressure at the outlet does not illustrate the actual structural p.Ysics involved. The presence of pores in the wall influences wall deformation characteristics, which m.Y increase the risk of rupture in specific conditions. In addition, the formation of seconda.Y flows in a curved blood vessel m.Y add complications to the structural behavior of the vessel walls. These reservations can be addressed .Y a fluid structure interaction-based numerical simulation of a three-dimensional aortic arch with increased p.Ysiological veloci.Y and pressure waveforms. The curvature radius of the arch was 30 mm with a uniform aorta diameter of 25 mm. A one-w.Y coupling method was used between p.Ysics of porous media flow and structural mechanics. A comparison of results with a non-porous model revealed that the approximated porous model was more prone to .Ypertension and rupture. Similar.Y, the seconda.Y flows found to be an important indicator for the vascular compliance that forced the outer aortic region to experience the largest deformation. Consequent.Y, it is ve.Y important to use actual p.Ysiological situations of the blood vessels to reach a diagnostic solution.► Cite this publication as follows:

Cheema TA, Kim GM, Lee CY, Hong JG, Kwak MK, Park CW: Characteristics of blood vessel wall deformation with porous wall conditions in an aortic arch, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 24590.

This work contributes to general theoretical aspects of.Yield stress fluids with significance for practical phenomenological material modeling. It introduces a terminolo.Y so that the material class .Yield stress fluid. is defined and can be distinguished from the terms .solid. and .liquid.. This new material classification is based on two criteria, the equilibrium relation and the flow function. In line with this terminolo.Y, an experimental procedure for classi.Ying the material behavior is presented. The second k.Y aspect of this paper is a discussion on the proper definition of the term .viscosi.Y.. The benefit of the differential viscosi.Y over the .Ynamic viscosi.Y in case of non-Newtonian fluids in general is worked out. This is shown .Y the most elementa.Y.Yield stress fluid, the friction element, because it is the basis of the.Yield stress concept. Its constitutive equations are given for positive as well as negative strain rates and are also able to represent the pr.Yield behavior. The theo.Y presented in this article is also applied to the Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, and Bingham element to demonstrate the working principle.

Supplementa.Y Informationis contained as an attachment to the reprint-pdf.

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Boisly M, Kastner M, Brummund J, Ulbricht V: General aspects of yield stress fluids - Terminology and definition of viscosity, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 14578.

Mechanical properties of various technological materials at large deformations are proposed to characterize .Y means of some generalized parameters obtained at large oscillation strains but not related to a.Y definite rheological equations. The base for the ana.Ysis is the Lissajous- Bowditch figures in two coordinate .Ystems - "stress - deformation" and "stress derivative with respect to the phase angle - deformation". An area of the first of these figures provides the well known integral estimation of dissipative losses in the deformation .Ycle while the second one presents the new integral measure of the matter's elastici.Y. The correlation between the proposed integral estimations of the "averaged" .Ynamic modulus and the values found in using Fourier and Che.Yshev series was demonstrated. This integral method was applied for three suspensions of various .Ypes. The obtained results allowed for viewing the .Ype of non-lineari.Y: pseudo-plastici.Y or dilatan.Y, stiffening or softening, as functions of deformation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ilyin S, Kulichikhin V, Malkin A: Characterization of material viscoelasticity at large deformations, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 13653.

Impregnation of organic liquid electro.Ytes in conductive powders is of major importance in the field of ener.Y storage devices such as batteries or super-capacitors. Impregnation during mixing and processing operations becomes usual for practical reasons and requires a better understanding of the changes of the rheological behavior of the mix. In this paper, the impregnation of pro.Ylene carbonate (PC) and dimet.Yl sulfoxide (DMSO) in activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) was studied .Y using an internal mixer. Monitoring of the torque of the filler/liquid blend as a function of the amount of liquid fed in the mixing chamber, enables to detect the transition from the solid friction of the d.Y powder to the lubricated liquid (or viscous) behaviour of the concentrated paste of wetted powder. The results were compared with data obtained .Y conventional nitrogen adsorption porosimet.Y combined with the knowledge of the molecular diameter of the liquids. A characteristic change was observed as soon as the liquid complete.Y fills the porosi.Y of the filler. Both tested liquids (DMSO and PC) impregnate more carbon black and the take-up rate is slight.Y higher for DMSO in comparison to PC because, as a polar liquid, DMSO has a better interaction with both fillers.► Cite this publication as follows:

Akkoyun M, Carrot C, Blottiere B: On the use of an internal mixer to study the impregnation of carbon fillers by organic liquids, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 13487.

We present a stu.Y of the structural and thermomechanical properties of .Yotropic phase in the quasi terna.Y .Ystem made of Ce.Yl.Yridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/salt water (0.9% .Y mass) with and without cobalt microparticles. Phase transition temperatures of the structural sequence isotropic L1/nematic calamitic Nc,/hexagonal H have been determined .Y differential scanning microcalorimet.Y. Temperature induced developable domains in hexagonal phase H and disclinations in calamitic nematic phase Nc were observed in crossed polar optical microsco.Y in confined geomet.Y. A rheological stu.Y of calamitic nematic phase Nc highlighted structuring effect of cobalt microparticles from a concentration of 2% to be demonstrated .Y an increase in viscosi.Y and viscoelastic moduli. This could be explained .Y a stabilization of disclinations.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ponton A, Meyer C, Foyart G, Aymard L, Djellab K: Structural and thermomechanical investigation of lyotropic liquid crystal phases doped with monodisperse microparticles, Appl. Rheol. 24 (2014) 14147.

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Rubio-Hernandez F, Gomez-Merino A, Velazquez-Navarro J, Parras L: 4th Iberian Meeting on Rheology. Fundamental and Applied Rheology (IBERO 2013), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 374.Justyna Czerwinska

12th Swiss Soft Days (SSD 12)

Appl. Rheol.23:6 (2013) 375-376 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Czerwinska J: 12th Swiss Soft Days (SSD 12), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 375.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Understanding Viscoelasticity - An Introduction to Rheology (Nhan Phan-Thien), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 329.

This stu.Y addresses the T.Ylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction solution of industrial high-speed reverse roller coating flow associated with thin-film paint-coatings of strip-steel. Novel aspects lie in the inclusion of the .Ynamic wetting line and flow ana.Ysis due to surface tension and inelastic rheolo.Y effects, via shear-thinning and lowering high shear viscosi.Y levels. The main aim of the stu.Y is to predict the zonal flow influences .Y examining viscous flow structures around the meniscus, nip and wetting line regions, conv.Yed via streamline and shear rate patterns, surface distributional lift and localised nip-pressures. The majori.Y of this stu.Y focuses on the seconda.Y nip-vortex and its influences on the contact point and .Ynamic wetting line. This aspect of the flow provides the driving mechanism for the onset of instabilities, which governs the entire process and tends to determine the consisten.Y of the film thickness at the outflow. Positive peak-pressures tend to increase with decrease in nip-gap size. At low nip-gap size, negative peak pressures are observed around the substrate-wetting line contact region. At higher speed-ratios, positive peak pressures are seen to increase with less recirculation apparent around the contact zone. Significant.Y and upon surface tension increase, the .Ynamic wetting line is sucked further inwards towards the nip-gap, stimulating a localised wetting line-foil third vortex structure, which causes an apparent reduction in film-leakage thickness.► Cite this publication as follows:

Echendu S, Tamaddon-Jahromi H, Webster M: Modelling Reverse Roll Coating flow with dynamic wetting lines and inelastic shear thinning fluids, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 62388.

Production in reservoirs located in deep and ultra-deep water that contain wa.Y crude oils faces a huge obstacle imposed .Y the low temperatures of the environment. When the wa.Y crude oil is subjected to a temperature below the Gelation Temperature, as in the case investigated in the present work, it exhibits a varie.Y of non-Newtonian features: elastici.Y, plastici.Y, viscous effects, and time-dependen.Y, which renders to this material a high.Y complex behavior. A crucial feature that is frequent.Y ignored when the determination of the.Yield stress is being carried out, is the time-dependen.Y nature of these materials. We demonstrate how significant.Y different values of.Yield stress can be obtained if this character of the material is neglected. We use the asphaltenes properties as inhibitors of wax formation and propose a protocol to capture.Yield-stress parameters. One important conclusion is that wa.Y crude oils can be classified as apparent.Yield-stress fluids, and not (true-) yield-stress materials, with the presence of a .Ynamic and a static.Yield-stresses.► Cite this publication as follows:

Soares EJ, Thompson RL, Machado A: Measuring the yielding of waxy crude oils considering its time-dependency and apparent-yield-stress nature, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 62798.

A series of fumed silica nanoparticles were used as an additional emulsifier for high.Y concentrated (HC) water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These nanoparticles, with different .Ydrophobici.Y index (HI) in the 0.60 - 1.34 and HI > 3 range, were mixed with the conventional low molecular weight surfactant, sorbitan monooleate (SMO), in the oil phase prior to the emulsification process. The rheological properties of these emulsions were measured and compared with the properties of emulsions stabilized with SMO alone. In the mixed emulsifier .Ystem, the changes in rheological parameters were clear.Y expressed as a function of HI. The mixture of silica nanoparticles and SMO significant.Y increases the.Yield stress and plateau modulus of fresh emulsion, compared to the SMO on.Y .Ystem. The effect was found to be more pronounced with a decrease in the HI. This is probab.Y related to the reduction in micelle content with the decrease in HI, owing to a concomitant increase in the amount of SMO adsorbed onto the particle surface. Then, interesting.Y, the Foudazi-Masalova model recent.Y developed for surfactant-stabilized high.Y concentrated emulsions (HCE) was found to describe successful.Y the rheological behavior of emulsions in the presence of a mixture of surfactant and fumed nanosilica.► Cite this publication as follows:

Tshilumbu NN, Masalova I: Effect of nanoparticle hydrophobicity on the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 62835.

This paper provides a new model to evaluate the.Yield stress of suspensions, slurries or pastes, based on the release of a finite volume of material onto a horizontal surface. Considering the height (h) and the radius (R) of the sample at the flow stoppage, two a.Ymptotic regimes, where h > R or h < R, lead to different ana.Ytical models that allow the determination of.Yield stress. Experimental observations show .Ypical sample shape at stoppage between slump (h > R) and spread (h < R). Based on these observations, we have developed a new ana.Ytical model to evaluate accurate.Y the.Yield stress of materials in this intermediate regime. The validi.Y of this model was evaluated from data obtained using various Carbopol(c) dispersions. The yield stress measured with the proposed model was compared with the.Yield stress evaluated from shear flow curves obtained with roughened plate/plate geomet.Y fitted to the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model. Results show the relevance of the proposed model which that can be applied in the range between models used for the two a.Ymptotic regimes.► Cite this publication as follows:

Pierre A, Lanos C, Estelle: Extension of spread-slump formulae for yield stress evaluation, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 63849.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology V

Appl. Rheol.23:5 (2013) 312-313 ►

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Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology V, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 312.

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Handge UA: Joint Symposium of the German Rheological Society and the Polymer Processing Society (PPS-29) Fundamental and Applied Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 310.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Madsen CG, Abo J, Featherston DW, Baldursdottir S: Rheology: A cross-disciplinary technology evolving to take on new challenges (22nd Nordic Rheology Conference 2013), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 309.T. Schweizer

Introduction to Polymer Rheology (M.T. Shaw)

Appl. Rheol.23:5 (2013) 266-267 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Schweizer S: Introduction to Polymer Rheology (M.T. Shaw), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 266.

Po.Ysaccharides provide high potential to be used as rheolo.Y modi.Ying admixtures in mineral binder .Ystems for the construction indust.Y such as concrete or mortar. Since superplasticizers have become state of technolo.Y, tod.Y, concrete is more and more adjusted to flowable consistencies. This often goes along with the risk of segregation, which can be effective.Y avoided .Y adding stabilising agents supplementa.Y to superplasticizers. Stabilising agents are .Ypical.Y based on po.Ysaccharides such as cellulose, sphingan gum, or starch. Starch clear.Y distinguishes in its effect on rheolo.Y from other po.Ysaccharides, main.Y due to the strong influence of a.Ylopectin on the dispersion and stabilisation of particles. Based on rheometric investigations on cementitious and limestone based dispersions with different volumetric water to solid ratios, the mode of operation of modified potato starch is explained in comparison to a sphingan gum. It is shown that the stabilising effect of starch in a coarse.Y dispersed .Ystem is main.Y depending upon the water to solid ratio and that above a certain particle volume threshold starch main.Y affects the .Ynamic.Yield stress of dispersions, while plastic viscosi.Y is affected on.Y to a minor degree. Sphingans operate more independent of the particle volume in a coarse.Y dispersed .Ystem and show significant.Y higher effect on the plastic viscosi.Y than on the.Yield stress. In .Ystems incorporating superplasticizers, influences of both stabilising agents on.Yield stress retreat into the background, while both observed po.Ysaccharides maintain their effect on the plastic viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Schmidt W, Brouwers HJH, Kuhne H-C, Meng B: The working mechanism of starch and diutan gum in cementitious and limestone dispersions in presence of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizers, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 52903.

The shear thickening behavior of concentrated suspensions can be exploited to dissipate ener.Y during impact or shear loading. To preserve the consisten.Y of the thickening behavior in practical applications, particle concentration, and dispersion should be kept within ve.Y close bounds over time. In this article, we ana.Yze the influence of the processing methods and storage conditions on the rheological properties of shear thickening fluids (STF) based on monodisperse suspensions of silica particles in po.Yet.Ylene g.Ycol. Particle dispersion linked to processing method and time strong.Y influences the value of the critical shear rate and storage in contact with air and humidi.Y is responsible for a change in particle concentration. Encapsulating the suspensions in silicone is proposed as a solution to preserve their rheological properties over time.► Cite this publication as follows:

Soutrenon M, Michaud V, Manson JAE: Influence of processing and storage on the shear thickening properties of highly concentrated monodisperse silica particles in polyethylene glycol, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 54865.

Rheological properties are one of the prima.Y considerations in selecting a fluid for using in chemical flooding enhanced oil recove.Y (EOR) operations. In this work, the rheological behavior of partial.Y .Ydro.Yzed po.Yac.Ylamide (HPAM) used for EOR was characterized .Y different techniques like stea.Y shear flow and uniaxial elongation in capilla.Y breakup experiments. Particular attention was focused on the main parameters affecting flow behavior of solutions, such as po.Ymer concentration, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. The shear rate dependence of viscosi.Y for HPAM solutions could be described .Y the Carreau model. Elastic model was used to fit the rheological results obtained .Y transient uniaxial extensional technique, which enabled to evaluate relaxation time. The results indicated that the elastici.Y of HPAM solutions was dominated .Y molecular weight. Shear viscosi.Y at higher shear rates was main.Y influenced .Y po.Ymer concentration, which was not an important factor determining relaxation time. For HPAM solutions, increasing of molecular weight distribution led to a decrease in shear viscosi.Y, and vice versa for elongational viscosi.Y and relaxation time. In addition, it was found that there was direct proportional relationship between first normal stress difference and elongational viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Wu S: Shear and Elongational Rheology of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Used for EOR, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 53800.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Malkin AY, Kulikov-Kostyushko F: IV International Conference on Colloid Chemistry and Physicochemical Mechanics, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 240.

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Goodyer S: Advances in Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (INFFM Annual Conference 2013), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 236.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2013 - Feb 2014, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 242.

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Anderson PD, VanPuyvelde P: 8th Annual European Rheology Conference (ERC 2013), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 235.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Greim M: 22nd Conference and Workshop on Rheology of Building Materials, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 184.

Viscosi.Y measurements were performed in water/AOT (sodium bis(2-et.Ylhe.Yl) sulfoccinate)/isooctane microemulsions as a function of temperature between 25 C and 55 C, molar ratio W_{o}= water/AOT ranging from 3 to 45 and three values of AOT/isooctane volume fractions (Φ_{m}= 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2). It was shown that microemulsions behaved as Newtonian fluids in the studied range of shear rate. For a critical molar ratio, W_{oc}, the corresponding viscosi.Y, η_{oc}, was shown to be constant with temperature but dependent on the micellar concentration. For W_{o}< W_{oc}, the solutions behaved as simple fluids and the temperature dependence of viscosi.Y was described .Y an Arrhenius law. The total activation ener.Y was found to be dependent on Wwith a maximum for W_{o}= 5. A correlation between the microscopic structure of the reverse micelles and the total activation ener.Y was proposed. However, a complex fluid behavior was observed for W_{o}> W_{oc}, where the viscosi.Y increased with temperature. For some values of W_{o}, the viscosi.Y reached a maximum, which could be explained .Y attractive interdroplet interactions and formation of droplet clusters.► Cite this publication as follows:

Guettari M, BenNaceur I, Kassab G, Ponton A, Tajouri T: Temperature and concentration induced complex behavior in ternary microemulsion, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 44966.

A commercial epo.Y resin .Ystem was tested under several different mixing conditions with viscometer and rheometer apparatuses. In each test, two portions of the same resin, prepared at different times, were mixed and their joint behavior was ana.Ysed. The differences between the behavior of this blend and the neat (unmixed) resin after the mixing point were, then, critical.Y assessed. Both the preparation time gap and the mixing ratio of the two portions coherent.Y affected the overall blend behavior. However, the common.Y accepted linear combination of the contributions of the portions of resin with different degrees of cure, usual.Y empl.Yed to describe the joint behavior, was not applicable for the entire time interval after mixture.► Cite this publication as follows:

Faria H, AndradePires FM, TorresMarques A: Identification of the Combined Rheology of Mixtures of Epoxy Resins with Different Initial Curing States, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 42413.

Back extrusion represents one of the cheapest experimental methods to determine rheological characteristics of studied fluids, and simultaneous.Y minimise their disruption in comparison with conventional rotational rheometers. This method is based on plunging a circular rod into an axi.Ymmetrical.Y located circular cup containing the experimental sample. Former.Y this method has, among other uses, been successful.Y applied to determinations of parameters appearing in power-law, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkl.Y fluids. The aim of this contribution is to present a sufficient.Y simple user-friend.Y procedure for determining individual rheological parameters appearing in the Vocadlo model (sometimes called the Robertson-Stiff model) -.Yield stress, consisten.Y parameter and flow behaviour index.► Cite this publication as follows:

David J, Filip P, Kharlamov A: Back extrusion of Vocadlo-type fluids, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 45366.

Current.Y more and more researches have been performing concerning the numerical simulation of the behavior of fresh concrete during pumping or formwork filling. Adequate implementation of the rheolo.Y properties of fresh concrete is a determinant k.Y to obtain realistic simulations. However, in ma.Y cases, the rheological parameters of the fresh concrete as determined .Y rheometers are not sufficient.Y accurate. The common principle of all the rheometers is not to measure direct.Y the rheological parameters of concrete but to measure some basic p.Ysical parameters (torque, veloci.Y, pressure, ...) that that in some cases allow the calculation of the rheological parameter in terms of fundamental p.Ysical quantities. Errors can be caused .Y undesired flow phenomena which are not taken into the prediction formulas and .Y the inaccurate prediction formulas themselves. This is direct.Y related to the poor calibration of the rheometer that cannot cover all ranges of materials. This paper investigates the calibration of the Tattersall MK-II rheometer .Y performing the numerical simulation for a tremendous range of concrete flowing in the rheometer, using computational fluid .Ynamics (CFD). This allows to quick.Y and accurate.Y obtain the rheological properties of fresh concrete, which can then be used consistent.Y for further flow simulations. This method can be applied for all .Ypes of rheometer.► Cite this publication as follows:

Le HD, DeSchutter G, Kadri E, Aggoun S, Vierendeels J, Tichko S, Troch P: Computational fluid dynamics calibration of Tattersall MK-II type rheometer for concrete, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 34741.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Zelko J, Prakash JR, Duenweg B: Fluid-Structure Interactions in Soft-Matter Systems: From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale (Prato, 2012), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 124.

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Ge W: Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives (FC Li, B Yu, JJ Wei, Y Kawaguchi), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 84.

We discuss the possibili.Y of using penetromet.Y technique for measuring the.Yield stress of concentrations made of grains immersed in a colloidal phase, such as concrete or muds. In that aim we used model materials made .Y suspending glass beads at different concentrations in a kaolin-water paste. We then show that a uniform shear stress develops along the object (plate or .Ylinder) b.Yond the entrance length. This shear stress plotted versus the object veloci.Y exhibits a shape similar to the flow curve of the material determined from rheomet.Y. For materials exhibiting the .Ypical flow curve of a simple yield stress fluid, i.e. at bead concentrations smaller than 30 %, the stress associated with an inflection point located at low velocities of this curve appears to correspond to the material.Yield stress. At larger concentrations of beads the suspensions have a more complex behaviour like.Y affected .Y its granular nature at a local scale and the possibili.Y of migration or frictional effects, so that neither conventional rheomet.Y nor penetromet.Y provide relevant data. We conclude .Y describing two practical penetromet.Y techniques for precise.Y measuring the.Yield stress of simple pastes.► Cite this publication as follows:

Tikmani M, Boujlel J, Coussot P: Assessment of penetrometry technique for measuring the yield stress of muds and granular pastes, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 34401.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2013 - Aug 2013, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 62.

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Antonova N: 4th Eurosummer School on biorheology & Symposium on micro and nanomechanics and mechanobiology of cells, tissues and systems, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 57.

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Thomas S, Kalarikkal N, Joy J: Third International Conference on Natural Polymers (ICNP 2012), Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 59.

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Handge UA: Geesthacht Polymer Days Rheology and Mechanics of Polymer Materials, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 60.

This paper discusses the rheological properties of different contents of a commercial.Y available Southern African cl.Y, Eccabond fine (EBF), modified with hexade.Yl trimet.Yl ammonium bromide, and Cloisite 15A (C15A), modified with dimet.Yl de.Ydrogenated tallow quaterna.Y ammonium chloride dispersed in silicone oil. Focused-ion beam scanning electron microsco.Y shows that both C15A and EBF cl.Ys have sheet-like morphologies, but the sheets are more compact in the case of EBF cl.Y. The rheological behavior of different suspensions was characterized .Y using a rheometer. The EBF suspensions behaved like Bingham fluids and also exhibited higher degrees of viscoelastici.Y than the C15A suspensions. The Casson model used to calculate the data of the.Yield stresses for the EBF suspensions was found to fit quite well with the flow curve results. The EBF suspensions ob.Yed the Schwarzl relation, in which the relaxation modulus (G(t)) illustrated a plateau-like behaviour for EBF suspensions compared to the C15A suspensions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hato MJ, Pillai SK, Choi HJ, Zhang K: The rheology of non-aquoeous suspension of modified eccabond fine (EBF) clay, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 34870.

The flow of complex fluids is routine.Y encountered in a varie.Y of industrial manufacturing operations. Some of these operations use rheological methods for process and quali.Y control. In a .Ypical process operation small quantities of the process fluid are intermittent.Y sampled for rheological measurements and the efficien.Y of the process or the quali.Y of the product is determined based on the outcomes of these measurements. The large number of sample-handling steps involved in this approach cost time and cause inconsistencies that lead to significant variabili.Y in the measurements. These complications often make effective process/ quali.Y control using standard rheometric techniques difficult. The effectiveness of control strategies involving rheological measurements can be improved if measurements are made online during processing and sampling-steps are eliminated. Unfortunate.Y, online instruments capable of providing sufficient.Y detailed rheological characterisation of process fluids have been difficult to develop. Commercial.Y available online instruments .Ypical.Y provide a single measurement of viscosi.Y at a fixed deformation rate. This dependence on a single pre-determined shear rate restricts these instruments from identi.Ying changes in the product or the process, especial.Y if the viscosi.Y at the pre-determined shear rate remains unaltered during these changes. We introduce an Online Rheometer (OLR) that uses small amplitude oscillato.Y squeeze flow to measure the viscoelastic properties of process fluids in-process and in real time under .Ypical processing conditions. We demonstrate that with an appropriate measuring geomet.Y and amplitude of oscillation, the frequen.Y response of .Ypical non-Newtonian fluids can be accurate.Y measured in a process pipe. We also compare our results with other techniques that are .Ypical.Y used for process rheomet.Y, critical.Y evaluating the utili.Y of the OLR technolo.Y for advanced process and quali.Y control.► Cite this publication as follows:

Konigsberg D, Nicholson TM, Halley P, Kealy TJ, Bhattacharjee PK: Online process rheometry using oscillatory squeeze flow, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 35688.

We describe and implement an efficient, open-source, multi-platform computer program ReSpect to infer the continuous and discrete relaxation spectra from .Ynamic moduli measurements obtained .Y small-angle oscillato.Y shear experiments. We empl.Y nonlinear Tikhonov regularization and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to extract the continuous relaxation spectrum. To obtain the discrete relaxation spectrum, we introduce a novel algorithm that exploits the continuous spectrum to position the modes. It uses a simple criterion which balances accura.Y and conditioning of the resulting least-squares problem to determine a parsimonious number of modes. The end result is an ea.Y-to-use, and ea.Y-to-extend program, which can be used from the command-line or from a graphical user interface to override some of the default algorithmic choices. &co.Y 2013 Applied Rheolo.Y.► Related Software

ReSpectavailable for free download at mathworks. ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Takeh A, Shanbhag S: A Computer Program to Extract the Continuous and Discrete Relaxation Spectra from Dynamic Viscoelastic Measurements, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 24628.

This work evaluates the impact of using bauxite residue (BR) as filler addition in cementitious compositions, during the ear.Y ages of transformation from the viscous fluid phase to an elastic solid. Chemical reaction and consolidation (p.Ysical phenomena of hardening) were also correlated. The chemical reaction rate was accompanied using isothermal calorimet.Y and the consolidation measured using oscillato.Y rheomet.Y (quanti.Ying the storage modulus - G' and relating with.Yield stress, σ_{0}). The results show that BR accelerates the cement .Ydration reaction, but in pastes with pure cement, consolidation was faster, showing a distinct effect on the fluid-solid transition.► Cite this publication as follows:

Romano RCdO, Liberato CC, Montini M, Gallo JB, Cincotto MA, Pileggi RG: Evaluation of transition from fluid to elastic solid of cementitious pastes with bauxite residue using oscillation rheometry and isothermal calorimetry, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 23830.

This paper reports the results of studies on the effect of aspect ratio of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the shear and extensional rheological behavior of low densi.Y po.Yet.Ylene (LDPE) nanocomposites. Up to a CNT loading of 2 wt%, as used in the present stu.Y, the shear rheological data suggest no network formation in the nanocomposites, irrespective of the aspect ratio of the nano filler. .Ynamic shear viscosi.Y η' increases with increase in loading and aspect ratio of CNT. However, at low CNT loadings (0.1 wt%) and with CNT of high aspect ratio, h. for the nanocomposites is found to be lower than that of neat po.Ymer. Stea.Y shear rheolo.Y results show negative values for the normal stress for the high aspect ratio CNT which is believed to be due to the tumbling of CNT with high aspect ratio. Results of extensional viscosi.Y measurements show that extent of strain hardening is dependent on the CNT aspect ratio and follows the order, high aspect ratio > medium aspect ratio > short aspect ratio, while the time of break follows the reverse order. The effect of aspect ratio on critical extensional stress becomes prominent on.Y at the high aspect ratio, but the stress increases with the increase in CNT loading, irrespective of the aspect ratio.► Cite this publication as follows:

Thomas SP, De S, Hussein I: Impact of Aspect ratio of Carbon Nanotubes on shear and extensional Rheology of Polyethylene Nanocomposites, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 23635.

Three major .Ydrogenated castor oil c.Ystal morphologies have been observed: fiber, rosette and irregular c.Ystal. Due to the difficul.Y in obtaining samples with a single c.Ystal morpholo.Y, rheological studies of suspensions containing mixtures of the three morphologies in an aqueous solution have been undertaken. The viscomet.Y of dilute suspensions has shown that the magnitude of intrinsic viscosi.Y is dominated .Y the fraction of a c.Ystal morpholo.Y .Ype, i.e. fiber > rosette > irregular c.Ystal. A modified Farris model was fitted to the rheolo.Y data for mixtures of c.Ystal morpholo.Y with interacting particles. A.Yield stress exists for concentrated suspensions followed .Y a shear thinning behavior with the increase of shear rate. A power-law relation has been found between.Yield stress and total particle volume fraction, and a constant exponent of 1.5 has been obtained regardless of c.Ystal morpholo.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yang D, Hrymak A: Rheology of Aqueous Dispersions of Hydrogenated Castor Oil , Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 23622.

In this work, bentonite suspension and mixtures containing 5 wt% of bentonite and 0.1 and 0.5 wt% of carbo.Ymet.Yl cellulose (CMC) were investigated in terms of their rheolo.Y and .Ydro.Ynamic behaviour in pipe flow. All fluids exhibited non- Newtonian rheological behaviour that can be well described .Y the three parameters Herschel-Bulkl.Y model. The axial veloci.Y distribution was determined using ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimet.Y technique. In the laminar regime the flow parameters were predicted .Y integration of the constitutive rheological model used. In the turbulent flow, the Dodge and Metzner model was applied to fit the experimental data. The measurements of the friction factor showed a small amount of drag reduction for the pure bentonite suspension, whereas for the po.Ymer.cl.Y blend the drag reduction was more important.► Cite this publication as follows:

Benslimane A, Bekkour K, Francois P: Effect of addition of Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheology and flow properties of bentonite suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 13475.

The aim of the present work was to predict the extrudate swelling behavior of organocl.Y containing Ac.Ylonitrile- Butadiene-S.Yrene (ABS) nanocomposite. The modeling was performed on the basis of unconstrained recove.Y concept original.Y introduced .Y Tanner but empl.Ying Wagner viscoelastic model with generalized Wagner damping function which is believed to be capable of taking into account the effect of organocl.Y on viscoelastic properties of nanocomposite sample. This approach enabled us to evaluate the effect of organocl.Y on extrudate swell in terms of disentanglement kinetics and chain relaxation behavior. In our modeling, the effect of die entrance region on the extent of extrudate swelling was also considered. In order to evaluate the validi.Y of our modeling, the extrudate swell was measured as a function of wall shear stress for samples va.Ying in organocl.Y content. The results predicted from the model were found to be in relative.Y good agreement with the experimental results.► Cite this publication as follows:

Saadat A, Nazockdast H, Sepehr F, Mehranpoor M: Viscoelastic modeling of extrudate swell of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene/Clay nanocomposite, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 12131.

The objective of this paper is to present the results of a research about the effect of mineral additions and specific lightweight aggregates obtained from wastes materials (crushed EPS and cork) on the rheological properties of renderings mortars. Four series of mortar formulations were prepared. Each series was composed .Y four mortars mixes with different mineral additions: .Ydrated lime, glass powder, tungsten mine waste mud, and metakaolin. The proportions of the mortars expressed in terms of apparent volume of cement, mineral addition and sand was 1:1:5. Flowabili.Y of mortar was measured using a standard flow table test. The densi.Y and the water retention capaci.Y of mortars were also determined. The mortar rheological parameters were evaluated using a rheometer. The results show that the mortar.Yield stress is strong.Y influenced .Y the water amount, binder fineness and mineral addition nature. The mortars plastic viscosi.Y is also influenced .Y the nature of mineral addition and the partial replacement of sand .Y EPS aggregates introduce incongruent values, caused .Y the segregation, in the mortar.Yield stress, whereas, the cork aggregates is responsible .Y the.Yield stress reduction.► Cite this publication as follows:

PereiradeOliveira LA, CastroGomes JP, Nepomuceno M: The influence of wastes materials on the rheology of rendering mortars, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 15505.

The rheological properties of po.Yet.Ylene oxide (PEO) solutions were investigated, at different temperatures, using small and large deformation rheological methods. Stea.Y-state flow measurements showed that the flow behavior of the PEO solutions is well described .Y the Cross model, which.Yields the critical concentrations c* (from the dilute regime to semidilute regime) and c** (from the semi-dilute regime to the concentrated regime). In the range of the temperatures investigated here, the apparent viscosi.Y is found to ob.Y the Arrhenius equation below a critical temperature we believe corresponds to the cloud point temperature. Above the cloud point temperature, the viscosi.Y increased with temperature. Similar.Y below the cloud point, both transient and .Ynamic tests showed that PEO solutions exhibit viscoelastic behavior, where both the elastic G' and viscous G'' modules increased with the increase in concentration and with the decrease in temperature. The Cox-Merz rule was found to app.Y to the PEO solutions at temperatures lower than the cloud point temperature, whilst divergence was reported after phase separation. The frequencies at which G' = G'', i.e. the reciprocal of the relaxation times of the tempora.Y po.Ymer network, was found to increase (the relaxation times decline) with decreasing po.Ymer concentration, in agreement with the relaxation times, derived from the Cross model. In essence, this stu.Y demonstrates that it is possible to monitor accurate.Y the cloud point temperature of PEO solutions .Y viscometric ana.Ysis.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bahlouli MI, Bekkour K, Benchabane A, Hemar Y, Nemdili A: The effect of temperature on the rheological behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 13435.

An adaptive neuro-fuz.Y inference .Ystem (ANFIS) was used to accurate.Y model the effect of gum concentration (GC) and shear rate (SR) on the apparent viscosi.Y (h) of the ice-cream mixes stabilized with different concentrations of xanthan gum. ANFIS with different .Ypes of input membership functions (MFs) was developed. Membership function "the gauss". general.Y gave the most desired results with respect to MAE, RMSE and R^{2}statistical performance testing tools. The ANFIS model was compared with artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The estimation .Y ANFIS was superior to those obtained .Y ANN and MLR models. The ANFIS and ANN model resulted in a good fit with the observed data, indicating that the apparent viscosi.Y values of the ice-cream can be estimated using the ANFIS and ANN models. Comparison of the constructed models indicated that the ANFIS model exhibited better performance with high accura.Y for the prediction of unmeasured values of apparent viscosi.Y h parameter as compared to ANN although the performance of ANFIS and ANN were similar to each other. Comparison of the constructed models indicated that the ANFIS model exhibited better performance with high accura.Y for the prediction of unmeasured values of apparent viscosi.Y h parameter as compared to ANN although the performance of ANFIS and ANN were similar to each other.► Cite this publication as follows:

Toker OS, Yilmaz MT, Karaman S, Dogan M, Kayacier A: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and artificial neural network estimation of apparent viscosity of ice-cream mixes stabilized with different concentrations of xanthan gum , Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 63918.

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Fischer P: The 6th International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure (ISFRS 2012), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 348.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Goh A, Hassell D, Jaafar A: Institute of Materials Malaysia (IMM) 1st Rheology Symposium 2012, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 347.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Ilg P: Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials (C. M. Roland), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 295.

This paper describes the development of a rapid rheological method for the characterization of functionalized citrus pulp fibers .Y high pressure homogenization. The suspension rheolo.Y of the fibers differ significant.Y depending on the applied processing conditions, making it critical to have quick and robust quali.Y control tools in place. The weak po.Yelectro.Yte nature of the fibers was considered in order to define the adequate solvent conditions for the rheological evaluation of the suspensions. Second.Y, an improved dispersion method using et.Ylene g.Ycol was developed in order to ensure optimal .Ydration of the d.Y fiber. The effect of fiber concentration was then studied both under stea.Y-shear and oscillation tests. The d.Y matter concentration for the rapid rheological method was set at 4 w/w% above the experimental critical concentration or percolation threshold.► Cite this publication as follows:

Debon S, Wallecan J, Mazoyer J: A rapid rheological method for the assessment of the high pressure homogenization of citrus pulp fibres, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 63919.

This paper discusses the influence of fat .Ype in the structure of ice cream, during its production .Y means of rheo-optical ana.Ysis. Fat pl.Ys an important part in the ice cream structure formation. It's responsible for the air stabilization, flavor release, texture and melting properties. The objective of this stu.Y was to use a rheological method to predict the fat network formation in ice cream with three .Ypes of fats (.Ydrogenated, low trans and palm fat). The three formulations were produced using the same methodolo.Y and ratio of ingredients. Rheo-optical measurements were taken before and after the ageing process, and the maximum compression force, overrun and melting profile were calculated in the finished product. The rheological ana.Ysis showed a better response from the ageing process from the .Ydrogenated fat, followed .Y the low trans fat. The formulation with palm fat showed greater differences between the three, where through the rheological tests a weaker destabilization of the fat globule membrane .Y the emulsifier was suggested. The overrun, texture measurements and meltdown profile has shown the distinction on the structure formation .Y the .Ydrogenated fat from the other fats.► Cite this publication as follows:

Su F, Lannes SCS: Rheological evaluation of the structure of ice cream mixes varying fat base, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 63871.

.Ynamic oscillato.Y and creep tests are two common rheological methods used to determine viscoelastic properties. In the food indust.Y, these tests are general.Y performed in the linear viscoelastic region, providing information on food structure and behavior over a range of timescales. However, this small-strain testing gives an incomplete picture of structural deformation and breakdown. Nonlinear oscillato.Y and creep testing, on the other hand, m.Y.Yield a more complete fingerprint of food structural behavior. In this stu.Y, wh.Y protein isolate (WPI)/k-carrageenan gels with different structures were studied under large amplitude oscillato.Y shear (LAOS) and creep tests to determine the impact of structure on nonlinear oscillato.Y and creep behavior, and to examine correlations between nonlinear oscillato.Y and creep parameters. Evaluated structural .Ypes comprised a homogeneous protein gel, a bicontinuous gel, in which both WPI andk-carrageenan exhibited a continuous network, and a carrageenan continuous gel. Creep data were fit to 4-element Burgers models for further ana.Ysis, and the predicted compliance values were found to be in agreement with experimental data (R^{2}≥ 0.90). Carrageenan continuous gels showed the greatest degree of nonlineari.Y under LAOS (25 % strain), while homogeneous gels displ.Yed the least. Nonlinear oscillato.Y data was found to correlate (R^{2}> 0.7, p < 0.05) with parameters used in the 4-element Burgers model. Hence, nonlinear viscoelastic behavior among materials m.Y be evaluated .Y both creep data and nonlinear oscillato.Y data. However, nonlinear oscillato.Y data gives a quantitative measure of the .Ype and extent of nonlinear behavior, while creep data indicates on.Y the presence of nonlinear behavior. .Y combining information on structural behavior derived from nonlinear oscillato.Y and creep data, it is possible to determine nonlinear behavior over a wide range of timescales,.Yielding insight into structural deformation and breakdown under application of stress or strain at different rates.► Cite this publication as follows:

Melito HS, Daubert CR, Foegeding EA: Creep and large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of whey protein isolate/.-carrageenan gels, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 63691.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Taj D, Savin T: International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics (IWNET 2012) and 3rd Lars Onsager Symposium, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 274.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Polymer Physics - Applications to Molecular Association and Thermoreversible Gelation (F. Tanaka), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 235.

General.Y, f.Y ashes (FA) could function as either semi-reinforcing or non-reinforcing fillers in po.Ymeric .Ystems, depending on particle size, specific surface areas and surface chemist.Y of FA particles. .Ypical.Y, FA particles are spherical with smooth surfaces having significant influences on viscoelastic and mechanical properties. Additional.Y, the presence of hea.Y metals in FA particles could pl.Y role on degradation process of rubber molecules to some extent. In this article, the storage instabili.Y and thermal aging properties of FA filled natural rubber (NR) compounds were focused via changes in viscoelastic responses. Results obtained reveal that the storage duration of FA filled NR compounds leads to decreases in elastic modulus and molecular weight, particular.Y in the compounds with high FA loading. .Y replacing NR with po.Yisoprene (IR) containing no non-rubber substances, the storage stabili.Y is significant.Y enhanced. It is believed that the presence of metal ions in both FA and non-rubber substances in NR could cata.Yze the degradation process of rubber molecules. Such degradation process could effective.Y be suppressed .Y the addition of amine-based antioxidant.► Cite this publication as follows:

Saowapark T, Sae-oui P, Sombatsompop N, Sirisinha C: Storage Instability of Fly Ash Filled Natural Rubber Compounds, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 55414.Saeed Farrokhpay

Rheology of titania pigment slurry

Appl. Rheol.22:5 (2012) 55285 (6 pages) ►

The influence of po.Ymeric dispersants containing different functional groups on the suspension behaviour of titania pigment slur.Y was investigated. The dispersants chosen were po.Yac.Ylic acid and modified po.Yac.Ylamides including homo and copo.Ymers modified with carbo.Ylate and/or .Ydro.Yl groups. The pigment slur.Y rheolo.Y was strong.Y affected .Y both pH and dispersant chemical groups. The inorganic coating l.Yer on the titania surface is not smooth, but rough or porous. The surface roughness of the pigment can generate additional contribution to the affini.Y of the dispersants for adsorption.► Cite this publication as follows:

Farrokhpay S: Rheology of titania pigment slurry, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 55285.

The T-bar rheometrical tool (Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc.) is a slender rod which is placed in a material and rotated horizontal.Y about its short axis .Y a vertical shaft. The torque on the shaft from laminar flow of material around the rod is determined .Y the material.s rheological properties. T-bar experiments for a Newtonian liquid are shown to agree close.Y with existing theo.Y. For.Yield stress materials an approximation is derived for the torque on a rotating T-bar which is supported .Y experiments on a range of materials. The torque for ve.Y slow rotational speed is insensitive to boundaries b.Yond a few T-bar diameters and is shown to correlate with the material.s.Yield stress and other non-Newtonian parameters. A stepdecrease in torque for each half-revolution of the T-bar was shown .Y some materials and possible origins of this effect are discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Anderson VJ, Meeten GH: Interpretation of T-bar tool measurements for yield stress materials, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 55370.

Control of food or bolus flow properties is part of several strategies to address aspiration pneumonia in .Ysphagic patients. An important alternative is the use of prescribed rea.Y-to-use (RTU) oral nutritional supplements (ONS) special.Y designed for the nutritional support at different stages of .Ysphagia. However, it is clear that there are significant differences among products designed for the same level or stage of .Ysphagia. On the other hand, videofluorosco.Y has become a k.Y technique for the evaluation of swallowing and, thus, .Ysphagia. In this stu.Y, a new approach for designing RTU ONS products, specifical.Y spoon-thick consisten.Y products, has been carried out. The scientific approach has been based, first, on the characterization of the rheological properties of a standard barium-based commercial product used in videofluorosco.Y studies and, then, matching the viscous flow properties of the RTU ONS product according.Y, .Y taking into consideration both formulation and process conditions. The results obtained clear.Y suggest that it is possible to obtain an excellent viscous flow behaviour similari.Y of both swallow barium test feed and RTU ONS produced at industrial scale. In this sense, both linear viscoelastici.Y properties and non-linear relaxation modulus have to be optimised to obtain the rheological similari.Y previous.Y mentioned.► Cite this publication as follows:

Brito-delaFuente E, Staudinger-Prevost N, Quinchia LA, Valencia C, Partal P, Franco JM, Gallegos C: Design of a new spoon-thick consistency oral nutrition supplement using rheological similarity with a swallow barium test feed, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 53365.

► Cite this publication as follows:

I Balazs: The International Conference on Bio-Based Polymers and Composites 2012, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 268.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2012 - Feb 2013, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 214.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Wagner C: Joint Focus Session Rheology of the German Rheological Society (DRG) together with the German Physical Society (DPG), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 213.

In-vitro small intestinal flow characteristics of a shear thinning fluid are investigated .Y transient '2-wave'-squeezing of an elastic tube under different speeds of peristalsis. Such peristaltic flow is the essential p.Ysiological transport mechanism in the gastro-intestinal tract. The peristalsis involves both expansion and contraction .Ype of flow (crest and trough of a wavelength). We met the challenge of implementing the UVP technique for monitoring the veloci.Y fields during appropriate peristaltic propulsion of a shear thinning fluid through an elastic tube (in vitro modeled small intestine). The higher wave speed of peristalsis results in higher magnitude of back flow veloci.Y (negative) both in the wave crest and trough regions with positive value being adjacent to the tube wall. In addition, the approximated wall shear rates at the wave trough are also found to be higher than those in the wave crest. The higher value of back flow is expected to be responsible for the improved mixing and convection leading to higher mass transport through the intestinal wall. The measured pressure difference between crest and trough of a peristaltic wave increased, as the wave speed got faster. However, the crest region showed a higher pressure compared to the trough region since the magnitude of back flow veloci.Y in the wave trough is found to be much higher compared to that in the wave crest.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nahar S, Jeelani SAK, Windhab EJ: Peristaltic flow characterization of a shear thinning fluid through an elastic tube by UVP, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 43941.

Ultrasonic Veloci.Y Profiling (UVP) is a powerful technique for veloci.Y profile measurements in research and engineering applications as it is the on.Y available method that is cost-effective, relative.Y ea.Y to implement and applicable to opaque fluid suspensions, which are frequent.Y found in indust.Y. UVP can also be combined with Pressure Drop (PD) measurements in order to obtain rheological parameters of non-Newtonian fluids .Y fitting theoretical rheological models to a single veloci.Y profile measurement. The flow properties of complex fluids are almost exclusive.Y obtained tod.Y using commercial.Y available instruments, such as conventional rotational rheometers or tube (capilla.Y) viscometers. Since these methods are time-consuming and unsuitable for real-time process monitoring, the UVP+PD methodolo.Y becomes a ve.Y attractive alternative for in-line flow behavior monitoring as well as quali.Y control in industrial applications. However, the accura.Y of the UVP+PD methodolo.Y is high.Y dependent on the shape and magnitude of the measured veloci.Y profiles and there are still a few problems remaining with current instrumentation and methods in order to achieve the robustness and accura.Y required in industrial applications. The main objective of this research work was to optimize an UVP+PD .Ystem .Y implementing new transducer technolo.Y and signal processing techniques for more accurate veloci.Y profile measurements as well as rheological characterization of complex fluids under industrial/realistic conditions. The new methodolo.Y was evaluated in two different pipe diameters (22.5 and 52.8 mm) and tested with three different non-Newtonian fluids in order to obtain a wide range of rheological parameters. Results were also compared to conventional rotational rheomet.Y and tube viscomet.Y. It was found that rheological parameters obtained from accurate veloci.Y data across the pipe radius, especial.Y close to pipe walls where the veloci.Y gradient is high, showed better agreement to conventional rheomet.Y than when compared to results obtained using profiles measured with conventional UVP instrumentation and commercial software (Met- Flow SA Version 3.0). The UVP+PD method is now more robust and accurate. The main challenge remaining is to successful.Y implement a complete non-invasive .Ystem in industrial processes that is able to achieve real-time and accurate complex flow monitoring of non-Newtonian fluid suspensions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kotze R, Wiklund J, Haldenwang R: Optimization of the UVP+PD rheometric method for flow behavior monitoring of industrial fluid suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 42760.

Ultrasonic Veloci.Y Profiling with Pressure Drop (UVP+PD) is a technique, which allows the measurement of the shear rate dependent viscosi.Y non-invasive.Y in a laminar pipe flow. To assess the performance of different data processing approaches for the extraction of the rheometric values, model fluids are characterized under well defined flow conditions created with a piston setup. Considering the shear rate range available in the pipe flow, a good quantitative agreement is found between the in-line measurements and the off-line measurements made with a rotational rheometer► Cite this publication as follows:

Birkhofer B, Debacker A, Russo S, Ricci S, Lootens D: In-line rheometry based on ultrasonic velocity profiles: comparison of data processing methods, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 44701.

Measurements of the viscosi.Y of non-Newtonian fluids and suspensions having a solid volume fraction of about 30% or more is of major interest from an industrial point of view. Cement paste and cement grouts for injection grouting applications, with water to cement ratios .Ypical.Y in the range of 0.4 and 0.6 - 0.8 .Y weight, are two examples of industrial fluid .Ystems. Few in-line techniques are available on the market that can be used for these fluid .Ystems and under realistic field conditions. The so-called UVP+PD in-line rheomet.Y method combining the Ultrasound Veloci.Y Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements is a promising new tool for industrial applications. This paper presents an initial pre-stu.Y that aims to demonstrate the feasibili.Y of the UVP+PD method using cement grouts for process monitoring and control of grouting applications under realistic field conditions. The UVP+PD method was tested and found successful for continuous in-line measurements of concentrated micro cement-based grouts with water/cement ratios of 0.6 and 0.8. The test set-up consisted of a combination of an experimental .flow loop. and a conventional field grouting rig - UNIGROUT, from Atlas Copco. The rheological properties were determined, direct.Y in-line and the parameters obtained were subsequent.Y compared with off-line measurements using a conventional rotational rheometer.► Cite this publication as follows:

Wiklund J, Rahman M, Hakansson U: In-line rheometry of micro cement based grouts . a promising new industrial application of the ultrasound based UVP+PD method, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 42783.

The in-line rheometer concept based on the combination of the ultrasonic veloci.Y profiling (UVP) technique and pressure difference (PD) measurements was utilized for investigating the influence of particle concentration and size distribution on the rheolo.Y of particulate suspensions in pipe flow under realistic industrial process conditions. Well defined model suspensions were used, consisting of 11 mm and 90 mm diameter po.Yamide particles suspended in rapeseed oil at concentrations ranging from 1 to 25 % .Y volume. The variation of concentration and particle size distribution had the expected effects on the shear viscosit.Y of the investigated unimodal and bimodal suspensions. The in-line results showed that the investigated suspensions exhibit Sisko flow behavior and demonstrated that the UVP+PD method can be used to determine the flow behavior of complex fluids and suspensions, even at high solid concentrations, under industrial conditions in-line. The obtained inline results were in good agreement with measurement data obtained using a conventional rotational controlled- stress rheometer. Limitations of commercial.Y available transducer technolo.Y were identified and other possible sources of inaccura.Y of the UVP+PD method were investigated. Several improvements of the UVP+PD measurement method were proposed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Wiklund J, Birkhofer B, Jeelani S, Stading M, Windhab EJ: In-line rheometry of particulate suspensions by pulsed ultrasound velocimetry combined with pressure difference method, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 42232.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Elkins C, Aumaitre E: Lorentz Center Workshop: Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 145.

In this stu.Y, the rheological properties of different samples of olive oils purchased from the same producer were investigated in a wide range of temperature. In addition, at constant temperatures, the shear rate was varied to obtain heating effects. It was found that all samples reach a minimum viscosi.Y in the temperature range of 120 - 150°C before thickening to higher viscosities. The viscosi.Y remained almost unchanged in high shear rates regardless of temperature, indicating no shear thinning effects. No thixotropic effects were observed for the olive oils. These findings can provide insight into the microstructural, p.Ysiological and senso.Y changes at f.Ying (high) temperatures.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ashrafi N: Effects of Temperature on Rheology of Olive Oils, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 34203.

We constructed a macroscopic model illustrating behavior of a single entanglement knot of macromolecules in a melt and examined its behavior at different deformation rates. A model consists of flexible elastic strips, which are tied in a gran.Y knot (modeling not a real geometrical form of entanglements but their behavior at relative.Y ea.Y sliding). This scheme models the situation when elastic ener.Y exceeds the ener.Y of the Brownian motion. The behavior of a knot chosen for modeling is different at low and high deformation rates. In the previous case knots disentangle as predicted .Y the .tube. model, elastic strips slip out a knot and this is an illustration of flow. In the latter case, knots tighten up, further extension of strips leads to the increase in stresses up to breakup of a strip. This effect imitates the transition from the flow to the rubbe.Y-like behavior of po.Ymer melts, when flow becomes impossible due to the formation of quasi-permanent entanglements. The general dimensionless correlation for the process under discussion has been proposed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Malkin A, Semakov A, Kulichikhin V: Macroscopic modeling of a single entanglement at high deformation rates of polymer melts, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 32575.

The methodolo.Y of evaluation of rheological parameters of non-Newtonian fluids on the basis of rotational viscosimet.Y data has been described, which is based upon rigorous solution of Couette flow equation and considers informational content of experiments. Class of models is formed for rheological.Y stationa.Y .Ystems, biviscosi.Y ones included. Functional features of methodolo.Y and its generalization for the interpretation of rheological properties measurements results according to plans of experiments have been outlined.► Cite this publication as follows:

Myslyuk M, Salyzhyn I: The evaluation of rheological parameters of non-Newtonian fluids by rotational viscosimetry, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 32381.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Phillips T: The British Society of Rheology Midwinter Meeting: Complex Fluids and Complex Flows, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 104.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Handge UA, Kutter A: 2. Bayreuther Kompetenztage: Rheology, morphology and fracture mechanics of polymers, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 102.

Bitumen is used as binder for asphalted roads worldwide. However the service life of asphalt roads is limited due to the viscoelastic properties of bitumen. The lack of.Yield stress and the flow behavior at high temperatures as well as the stiffness of bitumen at lower temperatures results in the main failure sources of asphalt roads. Ma.Y po.Ymers have been used in indust.Y to improve the rheological behavior of bitumen and consequent.Y, service life of roads. The po.Ymers are common.Y added to hot bitumen under stirring in order to achieve a stable dispersion. However, most po.Ymers show little to no miscibili.Y in bitumen, which requires long dispersion times and m.Y lead to oxidation of bitumen and degradation of the po.Ymers. Poor miscibili.Y of the dispersed po.Ymer and the bitumen matrix can result in phase separation during transport of molten bitumen, leading to a heterogeneous binder and further failure of the paved road, which is a common problem in the paving indust.Y. Rubber pre-treating leads to a faster mixing process without compromising dispersion quali.Y and stabili.Y. Bitumen was modified with SBS, ground rubber and chopped fibers of po.Ymers. These fibers, which showed good stabili.Y, can be considered for the future as bitumen modifiers. To evaluate the stabili.Y of the modified bitumen, we propose a stabili.Y index.► Cite this publication as follows:

Navarro-Gonzalez M, Wagner MH: Storage stability of bitumen modified by the addition of ground rubber, swollen SBS and polymeric short fibers, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 24691.

The principle of silicate l.Yer reinforcement in a po.Ymer matrix is known as the formation of a 3D network of single l.Yers. Nevertheless there is still a lack of knowledge about the p.Ysical ageing of nanocomposites respective.Y the stabili.Y of this network over time. As most of the nanocomposite applications have a more or less long-term shelf life respective.Y storage time, the investigation of the storage-time dependent behavior of the l.Yered 3D structure in a po.Ymer matrix is of major interest. In this stu.Y, the rheological (shear and elongational) properties of different po.Ypro.Ylene nanocomposites were measured using a cone-plate rheometer and a Rheotens apparatus. To evaluate the structural stabili.Y over time, the samples were measured immediate.Y after processing and after defined periods (18 and 36 months) stored under constant conditions. Furthermore the network structure was determined using XRD and TEM measurements. The results show, that, depending on the cl.Y rate and especial.Y the degree of exfoliation, the rheological properties are changing significant.Y. There.Y chain splitting caused .Y photo-oxidative degradation, leading to a loss in molecular weight, as well as a weakened 3D network .Y reverse diffusion of the po.Ymer chains out of the cl.Y galle.Y and/or reagglomeration of the nanoparticles are the two main factors.► Cite this publication as follows:

Laske S, Witschnigg A, Mattausch H, Kracalik M, Pinter G, Feuchter M, Maier G, Holzer C: Determining the ageing of polypropylene nanocomposites using rheological measurements, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 24590.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2012 - Aug 2012, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 49.Sami Hietala

Nordic Rheology Conference 2011

Appl. Rheol.22:1 (2012) 46-46 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Hietala S: Nordic Rheology Conference 2011, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 46.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cidade T, Sousa I, Franco JM: Iberian Meeting on Rheology - Rheology Trends: From Nano to Macro Systems (Ibero 2011): From nano to macro systems (Ibereo 2011), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 44.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cheneler D: Colloidal Suspension Rheology (J. Mewis, N. J. Wagner), Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 12.

The measurement of elongational viscosi.Y still evokes a series of problems in comparison with the relative.Y well-established measurement of shear viscosi.Y. Recent.Y new techniques have appeared enabling measurement of elongational viscosi.Y with the samples for which the aspect ratios of their geometrical shapes (i.e. length vs. width (diameter)) can attain moderate values, i.e. not necessari.Y of a longitudinal character as in the case of earlier techniques. The aim of this contribution is to experimental.Y demonstrate the invariantness of transient uniaxial elongational viscosi.Y measured with respect to a rectangular shape and thickness of LDPE samples using a SER Universal Testing Platform fixed in an Anton Paar MCR 501 host .Ystem. The width of the samples was varied within the range 2.1-12.7 mm and thickness altered within 0.1-1 mm. An advantage of fixing po.Ymer samples direct.Y to both drums (if possible) over the application of clamps is documented.► Cite this publication as follows:

Filip P, Svrcinova P: Measurement of elongational viscosity of polymer melts using SER Universal Testing Platform, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 14776.

We applied the creep test that allows obtaining rheological information in the long-time domain (low-frequen.Y range) that is not reachable .Y the use of the .Ynamic frequen.Y sweep test to characterize the linear viscoelastic properties of po.Yet.Ylene melts for industrial research and development. We considered the time scale for the creep test and what this imposes as limitations on the abili.Y to make such measurements on a large group of samples. For the long- time creep test in the molten state at high temperatures, po.Yet.Ylene demands ve.Y good stabilization with anti-oxidation packages to allow one to obtain useful data. The time for the sample relaxation from mounting and trimming in the parallel plate geomet.Y of the controlled-stress rheometer prior to initiation of a creep test was also considered. The issue of what stress level to use in the linear viscoelastic region was addressed as was the issue of signal to noise. The creep test was performed within 4 hours for practical use, and the frequen.Y range was extended down 10-4 rad/s. We tested several po.Yet.Ylene samples as examples taking account of above variables and showed that the data obtained .Y the creep method overlapped well with low frequen.Y end of the .Ynamic frequen.Y sweep data. .Y testing several high molecular weight resins having broad molecular weight distribution and/or long chain branching, we demonstrated the utili.Y of this methodolo.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Inn Y, Rohlfing DC: Application of Creep Test to Obtain the Linear Viscoelastic Properties at Low Frequency Range for Polyethylene Melts, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 15260.

An effort is made to determine theoretical.Y the new rheological properties of a rheological.Y defined non-Newtonian fluid as a result of the addition of particles in the original fluid. A theoretical model is proposed to determine the rheological properties of a dilute suspension of infinite-length round particles for a Power-Law fluid, which is treated as a homogeneous fluid with new rheological properties. The equations of a two-dimensional, dilatational, creeping, stea.Y-state flow of a near-Newtonian fluid around a solid circular particle are developed and solved. The solution is obtained .Y computation of the dissipation relation and is based on the change of the shear rate in a shear flow of the suspension. The model is solved numerical.Y. The resulting from the particle addition fluid is found to be more shear-thinning in comparison to the original. Experimental evidence from the literature supports the soundness of the present findings.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chernov V, Natan B: A simplified model for the evaluation of the rheological properties of a suspension of solids in a power-law fluid, Appl. Rheol. 22 (2012) 15163.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology IV

Appl. Rheol.21:6 (2011) 367-368 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology IV, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 367.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kutter A: User seminar of 2D and 3D rheology and stability of disperse systems, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 366.Cheila G. Mothe

1st Brazilian Congress of Rheology (CBR 2011)

Appl. Rheol.21:6 (2011) 364-365 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Mothe CG: 1st Brazilian Congress of Rheology (CBR 2011), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 364.

Viscoelastic properties are traditional.Y measured using sophisticated instrumentation, and the high cost of these rheometers m.Y limit utili.Y. This research attempts to enable viscometers that can provide a torque-time response, with vane attachment and a recommended cup size, to measure viscoelastic properties. Phase angles and shear moduli of model .Ystems (gelatin and po.Yac.Ylamide gels) were calculated using torque-time response and deformation zone concept. The methods were applied to data obtained from Brookfield.YR-I viscometer and the calculated values were compared with the data obtained from oscillato.Y testing on a stress controlled rheometer. The methods were improved in several areas .Y testing different cup sizes, rotational speeds, and viscometers and correcting torque-time responses to obtain most accurate results possible. The developed method, along with the torque-time response obtained from the viscometer, was capable of measuring viscoelastic parameters for the tested materials and further development could design a new quali.Y control device directed towards viscoelastic proper.Y measurement.► Cite this publication as follows:

Tanjore D, Daubert CR: A vane-in-cup approach to measure viscoelastic properties of gelatin gels through torque-time responses from Brookfield YR-I viscometer, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 63172.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Sanchez-Ferrer A: Magnetic resonance in food science (J.-P. Renou, P.S. Belton, G.A. Webb, Eds.), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 324.

Concentrated .Ypsum slurries used for wallboard production are studied using shear and elongational rheometers. It is shown that the rheological behavior of different slur.Y compositions can be sufficient.Y accurate.Y described in the framework of the Ostwald-de Waele power law, which reproduces both shear and elongational experimemtal data with sufficient.Y close values of the consisten.Y and flow behavior indexes for each slur.Y composition studied.► Cite this publication as follows:

Sinha-Ray S, Srikar R, Lee CC, Li A, Yarin AL: Shear and elongational rheology of gypsum slurries, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 63071.

We herein describe a set of rheological measurements that were carried out in order to characterize the solidification of photopo.Ymers. The solidification depends on the length of time of exposure to UV light, and the intensi.Y of that light, which reduces with distance from the irradiative surface. Liquid prepo.Ymer was solidified inside the gap of a parallel disk rheometer .Y irradiation of the prepo.Ymer with UV light through a fixed quartz disk. The rheological time-dependent changes were measured and ana.Yzed for both unidirectional and oscillato.Y shear. The results were compared with those obtained .Y direct measurement in the absence of shear. When the thickness of the sample was less than 0.1 mm, the ana.Ysis for unidirectional shear flow.Yielded a reasonable agreement for both critical exposure and solidified depth. When the thickness was greater than 0.1 mm, the application of unidirectional shear del.Yed the start of the solidification but then caused it to occur more rapid.Y. This dependence of the solidification on the thickness of the sample was more significant for dispersed .Ystems of nanotubes and for .Ynamic measurements made under oscillato.Y shear. The increase in viscosi.Y due to photopo.Ymerization was also estimated, and its effect was discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Darsono N, Mizunuma H, Obara H: Rheological study of the solidification of photopolymer and dispersed nanotube systems, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 63566.

A new conceptual non-contact method for liquid viscosi.Y measurement in capilla.Y tube using mobile phone as the data acquisition facili.Y is proposed. The video and image for the capilla.Y force driven flow of the test liquid was recorded .Y the phone camera. After the imaging reconstruction of the flow veloci.Y in the horizontal capilla.Y and the capilla.Y head in the vertical direction, a digital image processing software was developed to calculate the liquid viscosi.Y in MATLAB 2007b environment, recurring to the established theoretical correlation for flow mechanics. To demonstrate the feasibili.Y and accura.Y of the method, 10 groups of liquid were measured and the results were compared with the data obtained from a standard rotating viscometer. The relative error was found falling in the range of 0 ~ 20 %. This stu.Y establishes a pervasive low cost w.Y for viscosi.Y measurement of various solutions.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yang Y, Wang H, Liu J: Mobile Phone Enabled Pervasive Measurement of Liquid Viscosity, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 63890.Thomas Mezger

Basics of Rheology Workshop 2011

Appl. Rheol.21:5 (2011) 303-304 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Mezger T: Basics of Rheology Workshop 2011, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 303.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Seyfert S, Uhl A: International Workshop Dispersion Analysis (Berlin, 2011), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 300.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Oberdisse J, Genix A, Couty M, Schneider GJ, Pyckhout-Hintzen W: 3rd European Workshop on Nanocomposites and Polymer Dynamics (2011), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 299.

A new method is developed to determine the rheological and tribological behaviour of viscoplastic fluids using a back extrusion test. In back extrusion geomet.Y, the material is forced to flow in the gap between the inner and the outer .Ylinder. Such a flow is modelled .Y a Bingham constitutive law under different wall bounda.Y conditions (stick, slip with friction and perfect slip). When stea.Y-state flow is reached, an apparent shear rate is computed. The ana.Ysis of the inner .Ylinder penetration force versus the penetration depth helps us to develop a method to identi.Y the fluid rheological and tribological properties. This method is based on an inverse ana.Ysis to identi.Y the fluid behaviour parameters from experiments performed at different ram velocities and with different apparatus geometries. In order to stu.Y more complex fluids (Herschell-bulkl.Y rheological behaviour, for example), an equivalent flow curve is plotted from tests characterized .Y different average shear rates. The tribological behaviour is identified using different wall bounda.Y conditions, va.Ying the surface roughness of the .Ylinders. The method is applied to oil/sugar suspension and plasticine. Rheological and tribological behaviours are identified and results are compared with those obtained under stea.Y state shear flow. The obtained rheological parameters are close to those provided .Y the common rheological methods (difference lower than 15 %).► Cite this publication as follows:

Perrot A, Melinge Y, Estelle, Rangeard D, Lanos C: The back extrusion test as a technique for determining the rheological and tribological behaviour of yield stress fluids at low shear rates, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 53642.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2011 - Feb 2012, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 237.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Handge UA: Annual Meeting of the German Rheological Society: Recent Trends in Fundamental and Applied Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 238.Evan Mitsoulis

Hellenic Society of Rheology meeting (HSR 2011)

Appl. Rheol.21:4 (2011) 245-245 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Mitsoulis E: Hellenic Society of Rheology meeting (HSR 2011), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 245.

The rheological behavior of the olive oil-in-water emulsions has been studied .Y va.Ying the oil to water ratio as well as the surfactant concentration. The viscoelastic proper.Y of the olive oil emulsions was investigated with a cone-and-plate .Ystem, using a Bohlin C-VOR Rheometer. The obtained results indicated that the emulsions with greater oil and surfactant concentrations are high.Y packed .Ystems with greater interdroplet interactions as well as higher critical strain. The viscoelastic proper.Y of the emulsions can be enhanced .Y increasing the oil concentration. The elastic modulus of the emulsions was alw.Ys predominant over the viscous modulus, there.Y emphasizing the elastic character of the above mentioned emulsions. The emulsion with a higher oil composition shows greater elastici.Y, which implies a strong .Ynamic rigidi.Y of the emulsions. A high oil composition also enhanced the structural integri.Y as well as the interdroplet interactions of the emulsion.► Cite this publication as follows:

Tan H, Misran M, Khoo S: Viscoelastic Behavior of Olive Oil-in-Water Emulsion Stabilized By Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 54599.

The behaviour of silicone-oil suspensions of titanate nanorods coated with po.Y.Yrrole base in electric field has been investigated. Unlike suspension of globular particles of neat po.Y.Yrrole, rod-like particles show a stronger electrorheological (ER) effect corresponding to high rigidi.Y of the structure. A great influence of the oil viscosi.Y on the ER efficien.Y was observed. A good reproducibili.Y of the effect and a fast response to the switching-on and -off the electric field has been confirmed .Y monitoring the time course of shear stress under controlled shear rate.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mrlik M, Pavlinek V, Saha P, Quadrat O: Electrorheological properties of suspensions of polypyrrole coated titanate nanorods, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 52365.

An apparatus for small angle light scattering (SALS) and light transmission measurements under shear was built and tested at the Universi.Y of Massachusetts Amherst. As a new development, the polarization direction can be rotated .Y a liquid c.Ystal polarization rotator (LCPR) with a short response time of about 20 ms.The experiments were controlled and ana.Yzed with a LabVIEWTM based code (LabVIEW-TM 7.1) in real time. Quiescent and flow-induced c.Ystallization experiments on isotactic po.Y-1-butene (iPB) were conducted to demonstrate the instrument and software capabilities. Software was designed with a modular approach, so that further modules can be added to investigate other .Ystems such as po.Ymer blends, colloidal suspensions, solutions with droplets etc. A replica of the SALS apparatus was custom built for ExxonMobil Research in Clinton NJ.► Cite this publication as follows:

Arora D, Nandi S, Winter HH: A new generation of light scattering device with real time data analysis for rheo-optical measurements, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 42633.

Black liquor is the major .Y-product and biomass fuel of pulp mills, and the understanding of its thermop.Ysical properties is essential for the improvement of the design and the operation of chemical recove.Y processes. In this work, the rheological behaviour of industrial samples of Euca.Yptus globulus black liquor was investigated to stu.Y the influence of solids content ranging from 13 % for the white liquor sample, and from 30 to 65 % of dissolved solids for the black liquors, and of temperature from 298.15 to 338.15 K, covering shear rates from 0 to 1200 s-1. The black liquor showed a complex non-Newtonian behaviour, presenting at low shear rates a pseudoplastic behaviour, followed .Y a viscosi.Y Newtonian plateau. The modified Quemada model gives an expression applicable to all the shear rate range, which was used to describe the flow curves for the viscosi.Y of E. globulus black liquors samples. Moreover, a correlation based on a VTF model with parameters dependent on solids content was successful.Y developed for the viscosi.Y data of the Newtonian plateau.► Cite this publication as follows:

Costa H, Egas A, Ferreira A, Lobo L: Rheology of Eucalyptus Globulus Kraft Black Liquor, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 42533.

We have interpreted the results of shear creep data on samples of bread dough, tested in a parallel plate rheometer, .Y using a damage function model. Whilst the agreement between calculation and experimental results is satisfacto.Y for the dough for stress levels less than 500 Pa, increasing.Y large deviations from the predictions occur for stress levels of 500 and 1000 Pa. This is in contrast with the behaviour in simple shearing, where agreement with the damage function model can be obtained up to shear stresses of several kPa. It is therefore of interest to see w.Y the discrepan.Y between model predictions and experiments occurs in shear creep at such low stress levels. It is shown that edge fracture in a parallel-plate rheometer, due to the second normal stress difference, N_{2}, is responsible for the deviations and the model behaves quite well for stress levels 300 Pa and below, where edge fracture is not important. Therefore the edge fracture instabili.Y, which depends on N_{2}, limits the range of stress which can be applied in shear creep tests.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dai S, Qi F, Tanner R: Interpreting Shear Creep Data for Bread Dough Using a Damage Function Model, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 45070.

We report unprecedented non-Einstein-like viscosi.Y decrease of po.Ymer melts .Y special low glass transition, Tg, inorganic tin fluorophosphate glass (Pglass) that is remarkab.Y counter to wide.Y accepted dispersions, suspensions, and composites theories. The well dispersed low-Tg Pglass dramatical.Y decrease the po.Ymer melt viscosi.Y while increasing its.Young's modulus in the solid state at low loading (<2%) however decreasing with high loading (>2%), making the .Ybrid Pglass/po.Ymer solid material stronger.Yet easier to process in the liquid state. Disruption of the .Ylon 6 melt .Ynamics, strong p.Ysicochemical interactions, and submicrometer nanophase separation (proved .Y rheomet.Y, FTIR, DSC, SEM, NMR and XRD) are thought to be responsible for this experimental fact. This finding should beneficial.Y impact our abili.Y to prepare lower viscosi.Y, ve.Y high.Y filled .Ylon 6 melts from alrea.Y existing materials and po.Ymer processing methods such as injection molding and extrusion, making the simple strate.Y potential.Y wide.Y applicable in a number of applications such as thinner barrier resistant thin films, composites, and membranes for heterogeneous cata.Ysis.► Cite this publication as follows:

Meng Y, Otaigbe J: Mechanism of unexpected viscosity decrease of polymer melts by low-Tg inorganic phosphate glass during processing, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 42654.

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Fischer P: Practial Food Rheology - An Interpretive Approach (I.T. Norton, F. Spyropoulos, P. Cox, Eds.), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 150.

Rheological behaviour of culture broth stands as a fundamental parameter in bioprocess performances because it affects simultaneous.Y the heat and mass transfer as well as the flow pattern. On-line measurements of rheological behaviour are hard.Y compatible with the operating condition with respect to accurate and stringent conditions imposed .Y cell culture strate.Y. Our scientific and technical objectives are (i) to develop and identi.Y an experimental device enabling on-line rheomet.Y and (ii) to discuss and compare on-line and off-line measurements. In this aim, a bioreactor was equipped with a derivation loop including a specific on-line rheometric device as well as additional p.Ysical and biological measurements (specific densi.Y, mass flow rate, electrical conductivi.Y, pH,pO2 and temperature) during microbial cell cultures. In a first time, friction curves of calibrated ducts were established with Newtonian and non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluids. In a second time, axenic cultures with two microorganisms (bacteria and.Yeast exhibiting different sizes) were investigated in pure oxidative culture in order to produce biomass under high cell concentrations: ~ 40 to 110 g_{CDW}/l for E. coli (bacteria) and ~ 75 to 105 g_{CDW}/l for.Y. lipo.Ytica .Yeast). Cell broths exhibited Newtonian behaviour for E. coli and shear-thinning behaviour for.Y. lipo.Ytica, which were both dependant on biomass concentration. On-line and off-line rheological measurements are consistent for E. coli and.Y. lipo.Ytica, but significant.Y differed. On-line estimated viscosi.Y appears higher than off-line apparent viscosi.Y. Several assumptions in relation with microorganism p.Ysiolo.Y and metabolism (size, morpholo.Y, surface properties, concentration, biological activi.Y) could be formulated in agreement with scientific literature. On-line rheolo.Y brings new insight to investigate complex interaction between p.Ysical and biological phenomena.► Cite this publication as follows:

Manon Y, Anne-Archard D, Uribelarrea J, Molina-Jouve C, Fillaudeau L: Physical and biological study of cell cultures in a bioreactor: on-line and off-line rheological analyses, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 35167.

The interaction between magnetic particles in a bed fluidized .Y a gas is determined .Y the magnetizing action of an external.Y applied magnetic field. As the strength of the field is increased there comes a point at which the bed transits from a fluidlike to a solidlike stable state. Interparticle attractive forces induced .Y the applied field causes chainlike agglomeration of the particles, which confers the stabilized structure with a mechanical strength. In this paper we report experimental results on the.Yield stress of fluidized beds of fine magnetic particles stabilized .Y an external.Y applied magnetic field. Our results show that, in analo.Y with magnetorheological fluids (MRFs), particle structuring determines essential.Y the.Yield stress of magnetofluidized beds (MFBs). Moreover, our work shows that the dependence of the.Yield stress on particle size, which stands as a controversial issue in the stu.Y of MRFs, can be understood from the ana.Ysis of the jamming transition as affected .Y the size of the particles and the strength of the field.► Cite this publication as follows:

Valverde JM, Espin MJ, Quintanilla MAS, Castellanos A: Jamming and rheology of fluidized beds of magnetized particles, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 35179.

In this stu.Y the stea.Y flow viscosi.Y, complex viscosi.Y and relative viscosi.Y of PP/FeSi composite melts with filler contents up to x =0.7 (70 vol.%) of spherical Iron Silicon (FeSi) microparticles (in 10 vol.% steps) with diameter of d < 106 mm have been investigated. Plate-plate and capilla.Y rheomet.Y at different shear rate and angular frequen.Y in the range from 0.12 to 16000 s-1 (rad/s) were used. The results show an inflection point at high filler contents x ≥ 0.4 (40 vol.%) and low shear rates (< 1 s-1) caused .Y particle/particle interactions.With increasing shear rate and angular frequen.Y the .Ypical shear thinning flow behaviour of po.Ymer melts was found for all investigated filler contents. The viscosi.Y increases with increasing filler content at constant shear rate and angular frequen.Y.Time-temperature-superposition (TTS) and Cox-Merz relation were fulfilled at filler contents up to x =0.3 (30 vol.%). The results of complex viscosi.Y were normalized to a superimposed master curve. The three parameter of the new modified Carreau model were calculated for PP melt and shifted .Y two factors depending on the filler content. Based on these modifications, the complex viscosi.Y was calculated for each filler content up to x =0.3. The complex viscosi.Y graphs were reduced to a general master curve of the investigated PP/FeSi composites up to x =0.3. Final.Y, the relative viscosi.Y of the examined composites shows the best fit to the Quemada model► Cite this publication as follows:

Kirchberg S, Ziegmann G: Effect of Spherical Iron Silicon (FeSi) Microparticles on the Viscosity Behaviour of Polypropylene Melt, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 35495.

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Clasen C: International Workshop on Rheology and Structural Design of Complex Fluids 2011, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 185.

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Fischer P: Rheology of Particulate Dispersions and Composites (Rajinder Pal), Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 75.

This work takes a phenomenological approach to modeling the rheolo.Y of po.Ymer/cl.Y nanocomposites in (shear rate) γ ≤ 1 / s based on experimental observations [10]. The total stress was divided to three contributions: Matrix stress, σ_{M}, inter-particle (matrix/particle) stress, σ_{P}, and .Ydro.Ynamic stress σ_{H}. Based on the superposition of complex viscosities, η*, plotted against strain rate amplitude, γ_{0}ω, at different nonlinear strain amplitudes, a modified Bingham-.Ype constitutive equation proposed .Y Doiraswa.Y et. al [16] was used to model σ_{M}+σ_{P}while σ_{H}was modeled .Y using constitutive equation proposed .Y Lipscomb et. al [25] for ellipsoidal particles. The comparison between experimental and modeling results showed that stea.Y .Ydro.Ynamic stress in simple shear flows scales with complex viscosities in oscillato.Y experiments when compared at γ = γ_{0}ω. On the basis of this observation, the network-like behavior of the po.Ymer nanocomposite was attributed to retarded chain .Ynamics as a result of po.Ymer/cl.Y interactions. In order to take into account the thixotropic behavior of network structure, the constitutive equation proposed .Y Coussot [18] was empl.Yed for modeling σ_{M}+σ_{P}. Both Coussot and Doraiswa.Y equations gave a reasonable quantitative prediction of transient stress in simple shear flow up to shear rates as high as γ = 0.1 / s.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nazockdast E, Nazockdast H: Rheological Modeling of Polymer/layered silicate Nanocomposites, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 25434.

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Handge UA: Workshop Polymer Rheology. From the Liquid to the Solid State, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 124.

The composition of high concentration ash slur.Y requires careful selection of particle size distribution (PSD) to achieve the required rheological properties for efficient disposal through pipelines. In the present stu.Y, the maximum static settled concentration, C_{W-max}, tests and rheological measurements were carried out for a total eighteen nos. of ash samples (nine nos. of f.Y ash samples and nine nos. of f.Y ash.bottom ash mixture samples) in the concentration range of 60 - 70 wt%. It was observed that the C_{W-max}value reached maximum for the composition of mixture slur.Y consisting of f.Y ash and bottom ash with d_{50}as 6.4 μm and 144 μm respective.Y at a fixed blend ratio (weight ratio of f.Y ash to bottom ash) of 4:1. This was attributed to the packing effect and was correlated to the ratio of surface to surface separation for the coarse bottom ash particles, β, to the average f.Y ash particle size, d_{50-f}, to achieve higher solids concentration. The rheological behaviour of the ash slur.Y samples were described .Y non-Newtonian power law model in the range of solids concentration studied. Also a substantial reduction in viscosi.Y was observed for the same composition of mixture slur.Y sample which was attributed to the po.Y-dispersive characteristics of the ash particles. It was indicated that the slur.Y viscosi.Y was ve.Y much influenced .Y particle size ratio (λ = d_{large}/d_{small}) and volume fraction of solids. The stu.Y revels that the blending of f.Y ash and bottom ash at a controlled PSD m.Y be empl.Yed for preparation of high concentration ash mixture slur.Y for pipeline transport.► Cite this publication as follows:

Senapati PK, Mishra BK, Sahu A, Kumar V: Effective composition of high concentration fly ash-bottom ash mixture slurry for efficient disposal through pipelines, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 23480.

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Brummer R: 6th DGK Workshop Rheology of Cosmetic Emulsions. 25 Years of Rheology at Beiersdorf, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 126.

The rheological parameters (elastic modules and the.Yield stress) of bina.Y mixtures of high.Y concentrated emulsions with different droplet sizes can be several times lower than additive values in a certain range of concentration. This is related to the proper packing of small droplets between larger ones without compression of droplets. While the.Yield stress is practical.Y absent for these uncompressed droplets, the rather high storage modulus demonstrates the significance of interdroplet interaction in this .Ystem.► Cite this publication as follows:

Foudazi R, Masalova I, Malkin A: The rheology of binary mixtures of highly concentrated emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 25326.

In this paper, the role of extensional viscosi.Y in different paper coating processes was evaluated. Numerical models for the various coating application processes (blade coating, film coating, and curtain coating) were constructed to calculate the extensional rate. Different rheological methods were empl.Yed to measure extensional viscosi.Y versus extensional rate for model coating colour .Ystems. Pilot coater trials were carried out to stu.Y the performance of each model coating colour in curtain, blade and film coating. It was demonstrated that extensional viscosi.Y of model coating colours depends on the rate of extension, and colours can be extension thickening or extension thinning.With the numerical calculation results of extension rate in coating application processes, the extensional viscosi.Y test results of model coating colours were matched to their performance in pilot coater experiments. It was shown that increasing the extensional viscosi.Y measured at the appropriate extension rate that exists in blade or rod metering increased blade or rod load. Misting in film coating was reduced .Y low extensional viscosi.Y measured at the appropriate extension rate. Cratering in curtain coating was reduced .Y increasing extensional viscosi.Y measured at the appropriate extension rate. It was further concluded that the extensional viscosi.Y can be used to predict the coating performance on.Y if it is measured at the prevailing extensional rate of the specific coating process speed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Yang A, Salminen P, Vervoort S, Endres I, Bachmann H: Role of Extensional Viscosity in Paper Coating, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 23607.

This paper presents an experimental facili.Y that allows simultaneous viscosimetric and Particle Image Velocimet.Y measurements on concentrated suspensions in a wide-gap Couette rheometer. The experimental procedure is detailed: the optical characteristics of the index-matched suspension are careful.Y studied, the bottom end effect on both the viscosimetric measurements and the recorded veloci.Y profiles are ana.Ysed. First the experimental procedure is tested on a Newtonian fluid whose viscosi.Y is known. The spatial and time resolutions of our device are shown to be 200 μm and 100 ms. The precision of the local viscosi.Y measurement is evaluated to better than 4 %. Then we show that the device can be used to characterize the rheological behaviour of a 47 %-concentrated suspension of 30 μm spheres. According to the particles large size, the Brownian motion can be neglected. However, colloidal interaction are still noticeable.► Cite this publication as follows:

Blanc F, Peters F, Lemaire E: Particle Image Velocimetry in concentrated suspensions : Application to local rheometry, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 23735.

The effects of particle concentration, particle size and temperature on the shear rheolo.Y of suspensions of silica nanoparticles are studied. Sterical.Y or electrostatical.Y stabilized silica nanoparticle dispersions with sizes ranging from 5 - 75 nm and particle volume fractions ranging from 0.22 - 25 % exhibited a constant viscosi.Y within the shear rate range of 1 - 200 s-1. There is a non-linear relationship between the concentration and the viscosi.Y of these dispersions that depends on the radii and surface ener.Y of these nanoparticles.We propose an effective maximum packing fraction model based on the concept of an effective particle radius, which takes into account the thickness of the electrical double l.Yer and the surface coating material. The viscosities of all the dispersions collapse onto a universal curve as a function of the volume fraction normalized .Y the effective maximum packing fraction.► Cite this publication as follows:

Metin C, Bonnecaze R, Nguyen Q: Shear Rheology of Silica Nanoparticle Dispersions, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 13146.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2011 - Aug 2011, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 53.

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Fester V: Meeting of the Southern African Society of Rheology: SASOR 2010, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 47.

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Kubyshkina G: The 7th International Conference on Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 48.

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Seyfert S, Uhl A: Characterization of Nano- and Microdispersions (Berlin, 2010), Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 377.

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Naccache MF, Thompson RL: V Brazilian Conference on Rheology (BCR 2010), Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 376.

This paper presents an experimental stu.Y of the rheological behaviour of water-in-oil mixtures without a.Y additive, up to 10 % of mass water concentration, where the mixture is considered to be a Newtonian fluid. The selected oil is a classical turbine mineral oil. Viscosi.Y was measured for five temperatures, ranging from 10 to 80 C, for droplet size below 30 $\mu$m. A light decrease of viscosi.Y was detected for water concentrations below 0.1 %. For concentrations greater than 0.2 %, viscosi.Y increases with water concentration. Moreover, the variation of viscosi.Y with temperature shows good correlation with both Walther model and Mac Coull & Walther model. Final.Y, a new model of water-in-oil mixtures viscosi.Y as a function of temperature and concentration was defined.► Cite this publication as follows:

Harika E, Jarny S, Monnet P, Bouyer J, Fillon M: Effect of water pollution on rheological properties of lubricating oil, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 12613.

The effect of shear viscosi.Y on taste and mouthfeel perception has been extensive.Y studied; however, the effect of extensional viscosi.Y on senso.Y perception has been most.Y neglected. This m.Y be important as in-mouth processing is complex and probab.Y best described as a superposition of shear and extensional flow characteristics. Fluid mechanics researchers interested in separating elastic effects from viscous effects use Boger fluids and this approach was adopted here to investigate the effect of fluid elastici.Y on senso.Y perception. For the first time, two food grade Boger fluids based on glucose .Yrup and aqueous solutions of maltodextrin as solvents and xanthan gum as high molecular weight po.Ymer were formulated. The elastici.Y of the Boger fluids was characterised in rotational shear rheomet.Y, in a filament break-up device and in microcontraction flow. Saltiness perception and mouthfeel of the Boger fluids and samples corresponding to the respective solvent were ana.Ysed. Surprising.Y, there were no significant differences. .Ypotheses attributing this finding to the intrinsic properties of the samples are discussed. A major stu.Y would be required to gain in-depth understanding of the senso.Y properties of these fluids as their flow properties are ve.Y different from .Ypical liquid foods.► Cite this publication as follows:

Koliandris A, Rondeau E, Hewson L, Hort J, Taylor AJ, Cooper-White JJ, Wolf B: Food grade Boger fluids for sensory studies, Appl. Rheol. 21 (2011) 13777.

Blood rheolo.Y and hemo.Ynamics models show positive correlation between hematocrit and hemo.Ynamic factors that has implication to p.Ysiological and arterial disease processes. Blood flow is modeled .Y the Navier-Stokes equation and its non-Newtonian proper.Y .Y the Casson equation. Hematocrit dependent parameters in the Casson equation integrate the hematocrit level in the mathematical model. Then the mathematical model was linearized on a tetrahedral computational grid using the finite volume method. Results show strong correlation between hematocrit and hemo.Ynamic factors. The determined hemo.Ynamic factors and their strong correlation with the hematocrit provide explanation how these factors promote the atherosclerotic process in the right corona.Y arte.Y at a stea.Y flow and how influence arterial disease process.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shibeshi SS, Collins WE: Correlation of Hemorheology Parameter Hematocrit with Hemodynamic Factors and Arterial Diseases, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 64092.

An experimental set-up was used to visual.Y observe the characteristics of bubbles as th.Y moved up a column holding xanthan gum c.Ystal suspensions. The bubble rise characteristics in xanthan gum solutions with c.Ystal suspension are presented in this paper.The suspensions were made .Y using different concentrations of xanthan gum solutions with 0.23 mm mean diameter po.Ys.Yrene c.Ystal particles. The influence of the dimensionless quantities; name.Y the R.Ynolds number, Re, the Weber number, We, and the drag co-efficient, c_{d}, are identified for the determination of the bubble rise veloci.Y. The effect of these dimensionless groups together with the Eotvos number, Eo, the Froude number, Fr, and the bubble deformation parameter, D, on the bubble rise veloci.Y and bubble trajecto.Y are ana.Ysed. The experimental results show that the average bubble veloci.Y increases with the increase in bubble volume for xanthan gum c.Ystal suspensions. At high We, Eo and Re, bubbles are spherical-capped and their velocities are found to be ve.Y high. At low We and Eo, the surface tension force is significant compared to the inertia force. The viscous forces were shown to have no substantial effect on the bubble rise veloci.Y for 45 < Re < 299. The results show that the drag co-efficient decreases with the increase in bubble veloci.Y and Re. The trajecto.Y ana.Ysis showed that small bubbles followed a zigzag motion while larger bubbles followed a spiral motion. The smaller bubbles experienced less horizontal motion in c.Ystal suspended xanthan gum solutions while larger bubbles exhibited a greater degree of spiral motion than those seen in the previous studies on the bubble rise in xanthan gum solutions without c.Ystal.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hassan N, Khan M, Rasul M, Rackemann D: Bubble Rise Velocity and Trajectory in Xanthan Gum Crystal Suspension, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 65102.

The classification of a concrete mixture as self-compacting (SCC) is performed .Y a series of empirical characterization tests that have been designed to assess not on.Y the flowabili.Y of the mixture but also its segregation resistance and filling abili.Y. The objective of the present work is to correlate the rheological parameters of SCC matrix,.Yield stress and plastic viscosi.Y, to slump flow measurements. The focus of the slump flow test investigation was centered on the ful.Y.Yielded flow regime and an empirical model relating the.Yield stress to material and flow parameters is proposed. Our experimental data revealed that the time for a spread of 500 mm which is used in engineering practice as reference for measurement parameters, is an arbitra.Y choice. Our findings indicate that the non-dimensional final spread is linear.Y related to the non-dimensional yield-stress. Final.Y,there are strong indications that the non-dimensional viscosi.Y of the mixture is associated with the non-dimensional final spread as well as the stopping time of the slump flow; this experimental data set suggests an exponential dec.Y of the final spread and stopping time with viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Neophytou M, Pourgouri S, Kanellopoulos A, Petrou M, Ioannou I, Georgiou GC, Alexandrou A: Determination of the rheological parameters of self-compacting concrete matrix using slump flow test, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 62402.

Strain rate frequen.Y superposition (SRFS) has been suggested as new method to extend the frequen.Y range for assessment of the complex storage modulus G* of soft glas.Y materials to lower frequencies. The basic idea is that relaxation processes in such fluids are accelerated .Y an external shear field, analogous to the effect of a temperature shift in po.Ymer melts and solutions. Master curves for G' and G'' are constructed from the apparent modulus data determined from non-linear oscillato.Y shear experiments. Here we validate the SRFS principle for the first time .Y independent experiments and also demonstrate its limitations.We compare SRFS results to direct.Y measured G', G'' at frequencies down to 10-3 rad/s and creep experiments lasting up to 104 s for a varie.Y of gel-like fluids, including po.Ymeric thickener solutions, a high.Y concentrated w/oemulsion, and wormlike micellar surfactant solutions, as well as a weak.Y viscoelastic non-Brownian suspension of glass beads. Good agreement between SRFS data and direct.Y measured G', G'' values for the thickener solutions, the emulsion as well as the suspension. Apparent viscosi.Y data obtained from creep experiments and absolute values of the complex viscosi.Y in the low frequen.Y limit agree fair.Y well for these fluids. But the method fails for the wormlike micellar solutions and this could be due to non-uniform flow or due to flow-induced structural changes. Final.Y,we demonstrate that the combination of SRFS, rotational rheomet.Y, and advanced high frequen.Y rheolo.Y methods allows for a broad bandwidth characterization of complex fluids spanning an unprecedented frequen.Y range of about eleven decades.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kowalczyk A, Hochstein B, Stahle P, Willenbacher N: Characterization of complex fluids at very low frequency: experimental verification of the strain rate-frequency superposition (SRFS) method, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 52340.

Results are presented aiming to determine whether wall slip occurs while performing rheological measurements of Carbopol solutions and bentonite dispersions at different concentrations using a standard oil-field Couette-.Ype viscometer with two gap sizes..Yield stresses using a vane rheometer were also determined and compared to those obtained .Y extension of the experimental.Y-derived rheological curves at the Couette viscometer.The results show that, if preparation procedures are followed as suggested for Carbopol solutions and .Y API standard for drilling fluids, simulating either the pre-shearing in the rig mud pumps or in the bit nozzles during drilling operations, wall slip does not occur, with a good agreement of the rheograms and of the.Yield stresses determined for both gap sizes of the Couette viscometer and .Y the vane rheometer. No slip occurs also for CMC solutions which exhibited pseudoplastic power-law behavior.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kelessidis VC, Hatzistamou V, Maglione R: Wall slip phenomenon assessment of yield stress pseudoplastic fluids in Couette geometry, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 52656.

This paper is concerned with the determination of the constitutive parameters of low concentrations of the complex fluid po.Yet.Ylene g.Ycol (PEO). Veloci.Y fields of PEO solutions in a microfluidic T-junction have been measured for pressure driven flow using micron resolution particle image velocimet.Y. As the fluid is forced to turn the corner of the T-junction a range of shear rates, and therefore viscosities, is produced.Thus it is possible to establish the rheological profile from a single experiment. An inverse method used in conjunction with a finite element model was used to determine the constitutive parameters of the fluid, estimated to within 1.5 % error in all three cases considered.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bandulasena HC, Zimmerman WB, Rees JM: Rheometry of non-Newtonian polymer solution using microchannel pressure driven flow, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 55608.

Aqueous solutions of F127 pluronic .Ystems exhibit an interesting thermal gelation above a certain concentration. This phenomenon concerns the transition from a liquid-like behavior at low temperatures to a solid-like behavior at high temperatures, and it is due to different temperature responses from the different po.Ymer segments, po.Ypro.Ylene oxide (PPO) and po.Yet.Ylene oxide (PEO). Such proper.Y leads to a structural change in the self assembled macromolecule upon heating, from an isotropic micellar structure to an ordered cubic structure. These two .Ypes of assemb.Y are clear.Y distinct with respect to their rheological behavior.This contribution emphasizes the rheological properties of the pluronic .Ystem in micellar and cubic phase, in combination with NMR, .Ynamic Light Scattering and DSC information. The results emphasize the gelation process upon heating and a cubic phase characterized .Y higher storage modulus and higher A and z Weak Gel Model exponents than the micellar phase. Micellar growth upon heating was found within micellar phase. The presented data support the .Ypothesis that each po.Ymer segment active.Y participates in the formation of the different phases: while PPO is responsible for micelle formation, PEO pl.Ys a dominating role in cubic phase formation. Final.Y, different stiffness between the core and the corona of the aggregates in the two phases is observed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Gentile L, DeLuca G, Antunes FE, OlivieroRossi C, Ranieri GA: Thermogelation Analysis Of F127-Water Mixtures By Physical Chemistry Techniques, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 52081.

Electrorheological (ER) and dielectric properties of silicone-oil suspensions of po.Yaniline (PANI) particles protonated with phosphoric and tetrafluoroboric acids to various doping level have been investigated. The particle conductivi.Y was thus varied between the order of 10^{-9}S/cm and 10^{-4}S/cm. The .Ynamic.Yield stresses obtained at controlled shear rate mode viscomet.Y, the storage moduli from the oscillato.Y shear experiments and the dielectric relaxation times from frequen.Y dependences of dielectric constant and loss factor were used as criteria of rigidi.Y or elastici.Y of ER structures and particle mobili.Y in the electric field. The conductivi.Y of suspension particles pl.Ys a decisive role in their ER behaviour. The ER efficien.Y increased as conductivi.Y of dispersed particles raised, irrespective of the .Ype of empl.Yed acid used for the protonation of PANI.► Cite this publication as follows:

Stenicka M, Pavlinek V, Saha P, Blinova NV, Stejskal J, Quadrat O: Electrorheology of suspensions of variously protonated polyaniline particles under steady and oscillatory shear, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 55371.

Thixotro.Y is an important rheological behavior of wa.Y crude oils. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate existing model's abilities to describe shear stress dec.Y behaviors of wa.Y crude oils at constant shear rates. Seven models special.Y developed for or current.Y used to wa.Y crude oils are reviewed as well as two viscoelastic-thixotropic models for human blood. Stress dec.Y behaviors were measured for four wa.Y crude oils and at various temperatures. Each of the models was used to fit the stress dec.Y plots at a single shear rate, and at multiple shear rates, respective.Y. Global.Y, Zhao's model, a complex viscoplatic model with two structure parameters and twelve p.Ysical & fitting parameters,matched the experimental plots better than other compared models. While the three models with viscoelastic backgrounds were not quite successful. For use of models, one m.Y make choice .Y comprehensive.Y considering a model's complexi.Y in mathematic form and abilities to describe the rheological behaviors.► Cite this publication as follows:

Zhang J, Guo L, Teng H: Evaluation of thixotropic models for waxy crude oils based on shear stress decay at constant shear rates, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 53944.

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Ghirisan A, Broboana D, Balan C: 1st SRR - Summer School of Rheology 2010, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 305.

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Rikdahl M: The Annual European Rheology Conference (AERC 2010), Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 245.Norbert Willenbacher

Rheology of colloidal systems

Appl. Rheol.20:4 (2010) 254-254 ►

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Willenbacher N: Rheology of colloidal systems, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 254.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2010 - Feb 2011, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 252.

An enhanced version of the flexure-based microgap rheometer (FMR) is described which enables rheological measurements in stea.Y state shearing flows of bulk fluid samples of PDMS with an absolute gap separation between the shearing surfaces of 100 nm - 100 μmm. Alignment of the shearing surfaces to a parallelism better then 10_{-7}rad allows us to reliab.Y measure shear stresses at shear rates up to 104 s_{-1}. At low rates and for shearing gaps < 5 mm the stress response is dominated .Y sliding friction between the surfaces that is independent of the viscosi.Y of the fluid and on.Y determined .Y the residual particulate phase (dust particles) in the fluid.This behaviour is similar to the bounda.Y lubrication regime in tribolo.Y.The absolute gap control of the FMR allows us to .Ystematical.Y investigate the flow behaviour at low degrees of confinement (gap separations 100 nm - 2 μm) that cannot be accessed with conventional (controlled normal load) tribological test protocols.► Cite this publication as follows:

Clasen C, Kavehpour HP, McKinley GH: Bridging Tribology and Microrheology of Thin Films, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 45049.

We present a model for osmotic pressure and shear modulus of high.Y concentrated emulsions .Y including the interdroplet interaction in terms of disjoining pressure. The results show that even a small addition in interdroplet interaction can lead to significant deviations from the classical Princen-Lacasse-Mason models that take into account on.Y the surface ener.Y as the sole source of elastici.Y. The new.Y proposed model predicts new effects, in particular the possibili.Y of nonlinear dependen.Y of elastic modulus on the droplet size, and can be used to discuss the elastici.Y sources of high.Y concentrated emulsions. In the second part of this article, the unusual elastici.Y of high.Y concentrated explosive emulsions is discussed .Y using the proposed model.► Cite this publication as follows:

Foudazi R, Masalova I, Malkin A: Effect of interdroplet interaction on elasticity of highly concentrated emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 45096.

The.Yield stress of a magnetorheological fluid was measured as a function of magnetic flux densi.Y using different techniques. The.Yield stress values were determined .Y extrapolating the experimental shear stress-shear rate data to zero shear rate with the help of Bingham and Herschel-Bulkl.Y models, and .Y using stress ramp and .Ynamic oscillato.Y tests.To obtain the rheological data, the rotational rheometer equipped with a magnetic field generator and a plate-and-plate measuring geomet.Y was used. The different methods produced.Yield stress values which were in reasonable agreement with each other.► Cite this publication as follows:

Jonkkari I, Syrjala S: Evaluation of techniques for measuring the yield stress of a magnetorheological fluid, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 45875.

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Mabrouk B: 2nd International Workshop on Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Biological Systems (SMPPMM 2010), Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 176.

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Grassi M, Lapasin R: 11th Conference of the Italian Society of Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 177.

This article reports viscosi.Y data on a series of colloidal dispersions collected as part of the International Nanofluid Proper.Y Benchmark Exercise (INPBE). Data are reported for seven different fluids that include dispersions of metal-oxide nanoparticles in water, and in .Ynthetic oil. These fluids, which are also referred to as 'nanofluids,' are current.Y being researched for their potential to function as heat transfer fluids. In a recent.Y published paper from the INPBE stu.Y, thermal conductivi.Y data from more than 30 laboratories around the world were reported and ana.Yzed. Here, we examine the influence of particle shape and concentration on the viscosi.Y of these same nanofluids and compare data to predictions from classical theories on suspension rheolo.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Venerus DC, Buongiorno J, Christianson R, Townsend J, Bang I, Chen G, Chung S, Chyu M, Chen H, Ding Y, Dubois F, Dzido G, Funfschilling D, Galand Q, Gao J, Hong H, Horton M, Hu L-W, Iorio CS, Jarzebski AB, Jiang Y, Kabelac S, Kedzierski MA, Kim C, Kim J-H, Kim S, McKrell T, Ni R, Philip J, Prabhat N, Song P, VanVaerenbergh S, Wen D, Witharana S, Zhao X-Z, Zhou S-Q: Viscosity measurements on colloidal dispersions (nanofluids) for heat transfer applications, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 44582.

The semi-.Yperbolic (SHPB) die with and possib.Y without wall lubrication has been proposed as a device for measuring the elongational viscosi.Y of po.Ymeric fluids. Using numerical simulation under the condition of complete wall slip, it was found for two po.Yet.Ylenes (LDPE and LLDPE) that the calculated elongational viscosi.Y values agreed well with strain-averaged values, < η_{e}>, obtained from independent measurements in stretching .Ype rheometers. This is in agreement with the original .Ypothesis of Everage and Ballman (E-B). Numerical simulations showed that the Baird and Huang (B-H) approach for calculating < η_{e}>, which accounts for the shear stress due to geometric considerations in the presence of complete slip, agreed with data better than did the E-B approach. Numerical simulations using va.Ying degrees of wall slip indicated that reasonable values of < η_{e}> could be obtained using the B-H approach with wall slip levels which could be most like.Y reached using a coating such as a flouroelastomer. The numerical simulations provided an explanation as to w.Y the elongational viscosi.Y values determined in the SHPB die for resins such as LDPE, which are extensional-strain hardening, are less sensitive to wall slip than non-strain-hardening resins such as LLDPE.► Cite this publication as follows:

Baird DG, Chan TW, McGrady C, Mazahir SM: Evaluation of the use of a semi-hyperbolic die for measuring elongational viscosity of polymer melts, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 34900.

The present article describes and ana.Yzes different calibration methods for a screw .Ype process rheometer, Searle .Ype, having a die hole at the downstream of a barrel. The work also quantifies the effect of time dependent flows due to the screw on the measurement performance. Time variations in torque and pressure become more notorious at increased resistances to flow (higher fluid viscosities and smaller die diameters). Screw speeds seem to do not affect these variations. Shear stress in the .Ystem is related to pressure and torque, and .Y using a.Y of them, is possible to predict an average viscosi.Y. Similar prediction errors were found when using torque or pressure. A section of practical applications is added to understand the use of a screw .Ype process rheometer better.► Cite this publication as follows:

Salas-Bringas C, Lekang OI, Schuller RB: Time variations and calibration of a screw type process rheometer, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 34526.

We propose an exhaustive experimental characterization of a series of po.Y(n-bu.Yl ac.Ylate) samples that were .Ynthesized .Y controlled radical po.Ymerization and have different molecular weights. We focus on the rheological behavior of these po.Ymers and propose a model of their rheological behavior using a molecular model based on the reptation concept.We report the principal rheological parameters for these homopo.Ymers and demonstrate good agreement between model predictions and experimental data.► Cite this publication as follows:

Jullian N, Leonardi F, Grassl B, Peyrelasse J, Derail C: Rheological characterization and molecular modeling of poly(n-butyl acrylate), Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 33685.

There have been ma.Y publications on the measurement and use of.Yield stress as a means of determining the abili.Y of a .Ystem to suspend. Although in theo.Y it is a useful predictive tool, in reali.Y, it will often be found to give erroneous results, particular.Y when attempting to draw comparisons between dissimilar .Ystems. Alternative techniques can be used which, whilst not being perfect, will give results which are closer to the reali.Y. Several of these methods are evaluated and compared.► Cite this publication as follows:

Reeve P: Yield Stress: a predictive tool for determining suspending properties?, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 33009.

Fumed silica suspensions in low molecular weight liquids are used in ma.Y photonic and microelectronic applications, pl.Ying its rheolo.Y a major role in the effectiveness of their usage. Particle-particle and particle-liquid medium interactions of suspensions of .Ydrophilic fumed silica in low molecular weight polar media, po.Ypro.Ylene g.Ycol of 400 and 750 g/mol, concrete.Y, have been alrea.Y investigated.There, the affini.Y between polar solvent molecules and fumed silica particles prevents the formation of a 3D gel network. In this work it has been found that fumed silica can develop a flocculated suspension when it is dispersed in po.Ypro.Ylene g.Ycol with a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol. Besides, it has been found that this suspension exhibits time dependent behaviour within its reversible shear thinning region, which is related to thixoelastici.Y. The experimental method, proposed theoretical.Y .Y Cheng in 1986 to obtain the .Ynamic.Yield stress in thixotropic .Ystems has been here extended successful.Y to a thixoelastic .Ystem.► Cite this publication as follows:

Galindo-Rosales FJ, Rubio-Hernandez FJ: Static and Dynamic Yield Stresses of Aerosil(R) 200 suspension in Polypropylene Glycol, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 22787.

Surface rheological properties affect the .Ynamics of vesicles, nanoparticles, emulsion droplets, foam bubbles, po.Ymer microcapsules, liquid jets, living cells, lung avioli, thin liquid films, and ma.Y other multiphase .Ystems. Surface rheolo.Y is therefore relevant for a wide range of disciplines in the areas of p.Ysics, chemist.Y, engineering, biolo.Y, and medicine. Current.Y used descriptions of surface rheolo.Y have a number of limitations, and in particular are hard to generalize to the large deformation regime. Data are often ana.Yzed with constitutive equations based on straightforward generalizations of models developed for describing bulk phase rheolo.Y. Since the latter are in general designed to describe incompressible materials, th.Y are not guaranteed to describe high.Y compressible interfaces correct.Y. Here we discuss a unified approach to surface rheolo.Y based on nonequilibrium thermo.Ynamics (NET) that provides a consistent set of balance and constitutive equations for the unambiguous determination of surface rheological parameters, both near and far b.Yond equilibrium. A closer integration of experimental surface rheolo.Y and multiphase nonequilibrium thermo.Ynamics would clear.Y be beneficial for both disciplines.► Cite this publication as follows:

Sagis L: Rheology of complex fluid-fluid interfaces: a unified approach based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 24380.

We propose a viscosi.Y model accounting for experiments of emulsions of two immiscible liquids at arbitra.Y volume fractions. The model is based on a recursive-differential method formulated in terms of the appropriate scaling variable which emerges from an ana.Ysis of excluded volume effects in the .Ystem. This variable, called the effective filling fraction, incorporates the geometrical information of the .Ystem which determines the maximum packing and reduces to the bare filling fraction for infinite.Y diluted emulsions. The agreement of our model for the viscosi.Y with experiments and previous theories is good for all the range of volume fractions and viscosi.Y ratios.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mendoza CI, Santamaria-Holek I: Rheology of concentrated emulsions of spherical droplets, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 23493.

A new pressure cell is described to measure the flow behaviour of po.Ymer melts in dependence of temperature and pressure. Special attention is laid on the construction and functionali.Y of the pressure cell. The pressure cell can be pressurized up to 120 bar and is heatable up to 260 C. As a measuring geomet.Y a plate-plate-.Ystem is used which is capable of characterising high viscous fluids. First results with high viscous silicone oil show good agreement with known references in literature.► Cite this publication as follows:

Krebs M, Wunsch O: Development and testing of a new pressure cell for rheological characterisation of polymer melts, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 23229.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2010 - Aug 2010, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 59.

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Antonova N: 3rd Eurosummer School on Biorheology & Symposium on micro and nanomechanics and mechanobiology of cells, tissues and systems, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 55.

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LopezdeHaro M: 5th International Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics IWNET 2009, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 54.

In this work,we consider model fluids which are dispersions of cl.Y particles in aqueous solutions of carbo.Ymet.Yl cellulose. Their rheological properties are measured in both stea.Y and oscillato.Y shear flows.We present the experimental results obtained for different po.Ymer concentrations and for three different molecular weights of the po.Ymer. The cl.Y is a bentonite sample and the particle concentration is fixed to a value of 5 %. The mechanical properties of these materials is the result of a competition between different mechanisms: association-dissociation of aggregates of particles, adsorption of po.Ymer on the particles and desorption of solvent molecules from the particles, bridging of the particles .Y long po.Ymer chains.► Cite this publication as follows:

BenAzouz K, Dupuis D, Bekkour K: Rheological characterizations of dispersions of clay particles , Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 13041.

The effect of classical compatibilizers and silica fillers, which are a new potential .Ype of compatibilizers, on the rheological properties of PP/LCP blends was investigated.The frequen.Y sweep, shear stress growth and stress relaxation upon cessation of stea.Y shear were performed to probe the effect of the interfacial modification and the role of silica, on the rheological behaviour of the blend. It was found that SEBS-g-MA improves the interfacial interaction more than SEBS due to the possible chemical bonding between maleic an.Ydride groups and LCP chains. The results showed while the .Ydrophilic silica fills both matrix and the LCP dispersed phases, the .Ydrophobic silica has some compatibilizing effect on PP/LCP blend samples.► Cite this publication as follows:

Foudazi R, Nazockdast H: Rheology of Polypropylene/Liquid Crystalline Polymer Blends: Effect of Compatibilizer and Silica, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 12218.

The present work deals with the stu.Y of the rheological behaviour of PVC (po.Yvi.Ylchloride) pastes containing particles of ~ 150 μm in diameter obtained .Y po.Ymerization in suspension.The rheological properties of the PVC pastes were characterized .Y creep experiments using 6-bladed vane geomet.Y. The pastes show a ve.Y small compliance and a ve.Y narrow linear domain. The effects of temperature, of interstitial liquid and of saturation level of the wet paste were studied in detail and it was found that th.Y significant.Y modi.Y the creep behaviour. Other techniques allowed us to characterise rearrangements of the particles under load, in compression, .Y their oedometric modulus and .Y the failure stresses measured using a shear box. A ve.Y high oedometric modulus was measured (20 MPa) and .Y application of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion the internal friction coefficient (μ ~ 0.6) and the cohesion of the materials were deduced.We conclude from this investigation that the interfacial properties of the grains pl.Y a major role in the behaviour of the wet pastes under shear or in compression. The paper illustrates the difficulties in measuring the rheological and the structural properties of jammed .Ystems made from non-ideal (real) particles and reveals the k.Y parameters in stu.Ying such media.► Cite this publication as follows:

Rabia A, Djabourov M, Feuillebois F, Lasuye T: Rheology of wet pastes of PVC particles, Appl. Rheol. 20 (2010) 11961.Stefan Kubens

The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2009

Appl. Rheol.19:6 (2009) 364-365 ►

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Kubens S: The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2009, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 364.

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Gahleitner M: Advances in Polymer Science and Technology (APST 01), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 362.

The rheological behavior of ceramic oxide .Ydroxide alumina pastes with high solid loading is investigated. In order to enable an adequate and experimental.Y rheological characterization, the measurements are carried out with a Rheostress viscometer under isothermal conditions. Various compositions of a commercial AlOOH powder and binder mixture are investigated. We discuss the variation of loss modulus G', storage modulus G'', apparent and complex viscosities h, h* as function of frequen.Y and shear rate.The solid phase used here is the boehmite; the most important precursor for the g-Al2O3 phase for several applications such as cata.Ysts or functional l.Yers of ceramics. Solid phase compositions used are justified .Y the applications of boehmite in the manufacturing of cata.Ytic materials. A transition zone that appears at a concentration of 55 %wt of the solid phase (Pural) and at which the rheological behavior changes from viscoelastic to elastic is observed. This transition is of a importance as far as ceramic manufacturing is concerned.► Cite this publication as follows:

Belkham NeH, Mehamha A, Benachour D: Rheological behavior of alumina ceramic pastes, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 64969.

The viscoelastic performance indicators of a commercial roofing membrane and an ecological bituminous membrane, which contains EVA copo.Ymer from disused greenhouses and filler from landfill, are investigated. Rheological methods reveal as a useful tool to investigate basic and technical aspects of these materials. It is shown that using an extrusion rheometer adapted to measure the flexibili.Y at low temperatures and measuring the tackiness .Y means of a plate-plate rheometer, constitute basic experiments that help to develop new membranes. Under these premises, it is demonstrated that the ecological membrane is a performing material, whose sole shortcoming is a slight.Y higher application temperature.► Cite this publication as follows:

Goikoetxeaundia G, Fernandez M, Munoz ME, Santamaria A: Rheology applied to investigate roofing membranes: The case of an ecological alternative, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 62305.

The rheological behavior of emulsions has been extensive.Y investigated through experiments made at atmospheric pressure. This stu.Y presents a new experimental characterization of these fluids with measurements performed under pressure and in a large range of temperature.The results show that viscosities ob.Y Barus model that predicts an exponential increase with pressure. The extent of the increase is governed .Y a unique piezoviscous coefficient. This coefficient exhibits a non monotonous variation with temperature. It has been shown that its thermal dependence and its value can be related to the viscoelastic properties of the fluid. The coefficient is an increasing function of temperature for a solid-like behaviour and a decreasing function of temperature for a liquid-like behaviour.This approach has been applied to hea.Y crude oils. It has been demonstrated that water droplets and oil composition modi.Y the elastic character of hea.Y crude oils and as a consequence th.Y modi.Y their piezoviscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chaudemanche C, Henaut I, Argillier J: Combined effect of pressure and temperature on rheological properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 62210.

Experimental and numerical studies have been undertaken to check the influence of a magnetic field on the viscosi.Y of liquid GaInSn with suspended solid particles.The rheological investigations show a significant change of the slope of the measured flow curves between the situation B = 0 and 0.02 T. .Y means of numerical simulations of the flow in the presence of Lorentz forces it could be shown that the influence of magneto.Ydro.Ynamic damping of the flow reduces the measured changes but does not annihilate them. As conclusion a 15 % change of viscosi.Y of the melt in a magnetic field with B = 0.02 T could be fixed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Borin D, Nikrityuk P, Odenbach S: On the magnetic field influence on the viscosity of liquid GaInSn with suspended solid particles, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 61995.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology III

Appl. Rheol.19:5 (2009) 314-315 ►

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Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology III, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 314.

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Reinhart WH: 15th Conference of the European Society of Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation (ESCHM 2009), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 312.

"Single-point" equations used for intrinsic viscosi.Y determination are great.Y used when working with .Ynthetic po.Ymer solution .Ystems. In this work we have applied them to a biological macromolecule in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/water .Ystem. Almost all single-point equations are available and errors can be lowered. However, we have detected a .Ystematic bias in the estimations provided .Y "single-point" methods. To overcome it we propose a "double-point" method which gives lower estimation errors for this .Ystem. This novel method is not .Ystem specific and could be applied to other po.Ymeric solution.► Cite this publication as follows:

Curvale R, Cesco C: Intrinsic viscosity determination by 'single-point' and 'double-point' equations, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 53347.

The stabili.Y of the flow induced .Y the extrusion forming process of a cement based material is large.Y influenced .Y the relative migration between the lubricating liquid phase and the granular skeleton. In the present work,we propose linking rheological concepts and soil mechanics (consolidation theo.Y, Dar.Y's law) to reach a simple criterion which predicts the extrusion abili.Y of a mortar. Extrusion tests on studied mortar are performed at different ram velocities for criterion validation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Perrot A, Rangeard D, Melinge Y, Estelle P, Lanos C: Extrusion criterion for firm cement-based materials, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 53042.

Rheological characterisation of mortar is complicated .Y phenomena of slip, the formation of shear bands and depletion. At relative.Y low solid fractions a .Ypical Couette geomet.Y and a medium-size mixer-.Ype rheometer were used to determine flow curves. At higher solid fractions a large-size coaxial .Ylinder rheometer with multiple blade vane geomet.Y was used up to the point where slippage occurred. The viscosi.Y as a function of concentration responds to the Krieger-Dougher.Y law, when a mortar is considered as a suspension of sand in a matrix of binder slur.Y. The limits of this description corresponds to a critical solid fraction above which air is entrapped during the mixing procedure: air content measurements demonstrate this phenomenon. A clear relationship between mortar and slurries was established, based on the measured properties of both binder and sand particles, and on the Farris model for po.Ydisperse suspensions. Intrinsic viscosi.Y can be used as a tool to evaluate shape characteristics of the binder particles. A procedure for mixture optimisation of mortars using this model is demonstrated for the case of a trimodal mortar.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hendrickx R, Rezeau M, VanBalen K, VanGemert D: Mortar and paste rheology: concentration, polydispersity and air entrapment at high solid fraction, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 52550.

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Ahzi S, Patlazhan S, Remond Y, Khaleel M: Third International Conference on Polymer Behavior (Marrakech, Marocco, 2008), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 247.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2009 - Feb 2010, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 257.

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Coussot P, Kissi NE, Tassin J-F: De Gennes Discussion Conference 2009, a brief survey, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 250.

Aggregation, heterogeneous flows, and complex particle geometries all pose challenges in rheolo.Y. This paper uses squeeze flow rheomet.Y techniques to examine a case, where all of these pl.Yed a role. The applicabili.Y of some squeeze theories is tested, and the abili.Y to predict results based on suspension theories is examined. The squeeze flow data is shown to deviate from Stefan's Law [Stefan J, Sitz. Kais. Akad. Wiss. Math. Nat. Wien 69 (1874) 713-735]. The suspension rheolo.Y deviated from predicted theo.Y, but .Y taking into account particle effects such as aggregation the fit to the empirical Maron-Pierce equation [Maron SH and PE Pierce, J. Coll. Sci. 11 (1956) 80-95] could be understood. The conclusions of this stu.Y show how using on.Y squeeze flow techniques the .Ynergistic nature of these effects can be better understood.► Cite this publication as follows:

McIntyre EC, Filisko FE: Squeeze Flow Rheology of Zeolite Suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 44322.

The flow of non-Newtonian technical fibre suspensions (paper pulps) through a number of contractions is ana.Ysed and compared. Traditional.Y technical fibre flows are modelled as flow of fibres in a suspending medium. Here th.Y are treated as crowded flows of fibre flocs from which the liquid m.Y be squeezed in and out from. Compressive flows are common in the fibre-based process indust.Y. Th.Y can e.g. be found in the headbox of a paper machine, in extruder nozzles in po.Ymer technolo.Y, in the stirrer zone of mixers, etc. Traditional.Y such flows are ana.Ysed in elongational flow terms. Here it will be demonstrated that elongational and compressive flows for technical fibres suspensions differ qualitative.Y. The nature of technical fibre flocs is also discussed. For historic reasons th.Y have come to be regarded as the outcome of a flocculation process of electrostatic-colloidal and/or mechanical-entanglement .Ype. It will be shown that such a process is unnecessa.Y for technical fibre suspensions and that these flocs are qualitative.Y different, viz. frozen-developed dissipative structures of the floc.Y fibre flow from which th.Y originate. It will also be demonstrated that technical fibre flocs, in contrast with flocs of the chemical.Y flocked .Ype, are basical.Y non-coherent, i.e. not kept together .Y themselves. It is this non-coherence that makes a compressive approach fruitful, for these economical.Y important flows. An attempt to explain the reasons behind the present state of fibre flow theo.Y is presented. The ambition is to stop to the present inproductive tradition in technical fibre flow.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bjorkman U: The non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics of Technical Fibre Suspensions: Compressive Flows, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 44290.

The combined effect of charged addition and molecular weight, M_{w}, on the thermal gelation and gel dissolution of po.Y(Nisopro.Ylac.Ylamide) chains was explored .Y using Rheological techniques. The .Ynthesized charged derivative is po.Y(N-isopro.Ylac.Ylamide co-Ac.Ylic acid). The rheological behavior of the two macromolecules is clear.Y different: the thermal gelation of the high M_{w}and charged macromolecule is much more accentuated. This suggests that the gelation at high temperatures on.Y occurs when the inter po.Ymer aggregate distance is sufficient.Y short to allow po.Ymer bridging; this situation can be achieved .Y different approaches, such as increasing po.Ymer concentration and increasing po.Ymer persistence length and po.Ymer M_{w}.► Cite this publication as follows:

Antunes FE, Gentile L, Tavano L, OlivieroRossi C: Rheological characterization of the thermal gelation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)co-Acrylic Acid, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 42064.

Filament breakup of high viscosi.Y fluids with apparent.Yield stress has been investigated and strategies for an appropriate characterization of their behavior in CaBER experiments are discussed. Filament profiles of such fluids exhibit significant concave curvature. Accurate determination of filament shape is mandato.Y for understanding deformation behavior. Therefore, we have set up an optical train including high-speed camera, telecentric objective and telecentric back-light illumination with a blue light emitting diode (LED) providing high contrast filament shape imaging. Image ana.Ysis allows for diameter determination with an accura.Y of 3.55 μm/pixel. In addition to the transient filament diameter at the neck we have extracted the curvature at this point as a function of time and the region of deformation, in order to characterize the extensional flow behavior.We have investigated the time evolution of filament shape as a function of various experimental parameters like stretching time, veloci.Y profile during stretching, stretching ratio and initial sample volume at constant stretching ratio. Filament thinning is independent of stretching time,tsub>s and stretching veloci.Y profile. But when the same stretching ratio is applied at different initial volume fraction, filament curvature increases strong.Y with decreasing sample volume leading to an increase of filament life time according to the negative contribution of its curvature to the Laplace pressure inside the fluid.► Cite this publication as follows:

Niedzwiedz K, Arnolds O, Willenbacher N, Brummer R: Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry of Yield Stress Fluids, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 41969.J.K.G. Dhont, G. Gompper, D. Richter

Julich Soft Matter Days 2008

Appl. Rheol.19:3 (2009) 176-178 ►

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Dhont JKG, Gompper G, Richter D: Julich Soft Matter Days 2008, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 176.

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Yeo L, Chang H, Wen W: Advances in Microfluidics and Nanofluidics (Hong Kong, 2009), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 175.

The basic rheological properties of two Persian wheat flours - Tajan (11 % protein) and Back Cross Roshan (8 % protein) and two Australian wheat flours-JANZ (12.9 % protein) and Rosella (8.6 % protein) have been characterized.These properties have been interpreted via a damage function model. All samples could be reasonab.Y well described .Y the damage function model with a power-law relaxation spectrum. Although the shear stresses in the Australian samples were higher, the relaxation parameterG(1)and power-law exponentpfor the Australian varieties were lower than those for the Persian samples and the damage functions were different. Since protein contents were different, this indicates that the amount of protein is not the sole determinant of softness in the samples. The damage functionfwas also calculated for all samples. This function gives a measure of the softening due to working or kneading of the samples at a given strain level.► Cite this publication as follows:

Amirkaveei S: A Comparison of the Rheology of four Wheat Flour Doughs via a Damage Function Model, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 34305.

The objective of this work is to stu.Y quantitative.Y the errors introduced .Y the standard Newtonian and power-law assumptions used in the determination of the material properties of viscoplastic fluids from circular Couette experiments. The stea.Y-state circular Couette flow of a Herschel-Bulkl.Y fluid is solved assuming that the inner .Ylinder is rotating at constant speed while the outer one is fixed. Ana.Ytical solutions are presented for certain values of the power-law exponent. It is shown that the error in the computed wall shear rate, which is insignificant when the diameter ratio is closed to uni.Y,m.Y grow large depending on the diameter ratio and the material parameters.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chatzimina M, Georgiou G, Alexandrou A: Wall shear rates in circular Couette flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 34288.

Rheological creep and recove.Y tests have been applied at different ass.Y times to xanthan gum .Ydrogels at several concentrations. The Burger model has been successful.Y applied to fit the creep data and to ana.Yze results. Increasing the xanthan gum concentration also increases the elastic and viscous components without changing the molecular distribution of these .Ydrogels. A semi-empirical equation considering the different elements of the Burger model has been proposed to ana.Yze compliance behavior in recove.Y tests. The dependence of the relative contribution to deformation of the Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt units upon xanthan gum concentration and recove.Y ass.Y times has been evaluated. Since the recove.Y ratio is the same for all .Ydrogels, we suggest parallel structures with no mutual interactions are formed when increasing concentration.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dolz M, Corrias F, Diez-Sales O, Casanovas A, Hernandez M: Influence of test times on creep and recovery behaviour of Xanthan gum hydrogels, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 34201.

We present an experimental stu.Y of the stabili.Y of the T.Ylor-Dean flow of well characterized suspensions of solid disks occurring between two horizontal coaxial .Ylinders. The inner .Ylinder is rotating and the outer .Ylinder is at rest. .Y means of a visualization technique, we determine the shape of the vortices which take place in the flow at the onset of the instabili.Y and the corresponding critical parameters against the flake concentration and the .Ystem aspect ratio.► Cite this publication as follows:

Daimallah A, Bouabdallah A, Nsom B, Adnane M, Alemany A: Onset of Instabilities in Taylor-Dean Flow of Yield-Stress Fluid, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 33960.

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Guerrero A, Santamaria A: Iberian Meeting on Rheology, IBEREO 2008, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 123.Johan Wiklund

The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2008

Appl. Rheol.19:2 (2009) 121-122 ►

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Wiklund J: The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2008, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 121.

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Sarraf H: High performance ceramics by advanced colloidal processing (PhD thesis summary), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 119.

The specific properties of bentonite such as .Ydration, swelling,water absorption, viscosi.Y,.Yield stress and thixotro.Y make it a valuable material in the form of mineral powder for a wide range of uses in agrono.Y, cosmetics and civil engineering. A flow curve is a quick test used to evaluate the rheological basic properties of a viscous fluid. However, ma.Y bentonite dispersions exhibit a complex flow curve, with.Yield stress and thixotro.Y area, especial.Y at high concentration. In this stu.Y, flow curves from raw and activated bentonites dispersed in water were acquired at 6, 8 and 10% mass concentrations. Five stages along the flow curve were identified.To explain each stage, rheograms obtained from a dispersion made with a model material were studied in depth. The model material was a smectite extracted from a raw bentonite then saturated with calcium or sodium. Ma.Y homoionic and bi-ionic dispersions were prepared at various concentrations. The ana.Ysis and the modelling of some creep-recove.Y tests .Y a Zener model showed the relationship between the initial stage in the flow curve, named AB stage, and the viscoelastic properties of the fluid. The AB stage corresponds to the deformation of the material in the solid state. The τ_{B}point corresponds to an intermediate.Yield stress between the solid state and the start of the heterogeneous fracturation. The stu.Y of ma.Y bi-ionic dispersions allowed drawing the evolution of the.Yield stress as a function of concentration and saturation. The composition of the raw bentonites was expressed as an equivalent bi-ionic dispersion .Y calculating an active smectite percentage. A good correlation was obtained at the highest concentrations between τ_{B}from the bi-ionic model dispersions and the raw bentonites dispersions► Cite this publication as follows:

Paumier S, Pantet A, Monnet P, Touze-Foltz N: Evaluation of the viscoelastic properties of a clay material using a flow curve, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 23824.

The authors previous.Y introduced an activation model for the onset of shear thickening in electrical.Y stabilized colloidal suspensions. It predicts that shear thickening occurs, when particles arranged along the compression axis in a sheared suspension do overcome the electrostatic repulsion at a critical shear stress, and are captured in the prima.Y minimum of the DLVO interaction potential. A comparison with an experimental investigation on non-aqueous silica suspensions, carried out .Y Maranzano and Wagner, is performed. For particle .Ystems that fall into the applicabili.Y range of the theo.Y, a good coincidence between the experimental data and the model predictions can be found.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kaldasch J, Senge B, Laven J: Shear thickening in electrically stabilized non-aqueous colloidal suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 23493.

Nanocl.Y dispersions in organic solvents are wide.Y used in cosmetics for a varie.Y of gels and creams, whose properties depend on the powder content and the processing method. The control of the shear applied during processing is therefore essential for achieving the required properties.This stu.Y demonstrates the utili.Y of app.Ying rheological measurements for characterizing cosmetic products based on nanocl.Ys and relating their viscoelastic properties to end-use performances. In particular, a rheological characterization of bentonite dispersions in isododecane at different cl.Y content and shear histo.Y is presented. For each inorganic content, both mixed samples and samples subjected to several calendering runs were studied. The effect of shear and cl.Y content on the viscoelastic properties was investigated .Y a combination of oscillato.Y shear experiments under small-deformation conditions and .Y X-R.Y diffraction. The tested samples showed a gel-like behaviour with a final structure depending on the applied shear stress. .Y increasing the inorganic content in the dispersion, a reduction in the gel stabili.Y to a further shear application was observed. Two models, developed for colloidal gels,were used to fit the rheological results enabling to evaluate the microstructure and the degree of dispersion of the tested samples and to relate the colloidal structure to the elastic properties.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lionetto F, Maffezzoli A: Rheological characterization of concentrarted nanoclay dispersions in an organic solvent, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 23423.

An optimised method for the detection and ana.Ysis of the time dependent pressure associated with the development of melt flow instabilities during extrusion through a capilla.Y die was developed and validated. The magnitude and frequen.Y of the developed quasi-periodic distortions, as well as the pressure profiles along the die length, were found to depend on the MWD, topolo.Y, melt elastici.Y and uniaxial extensional flow properties. Both the onset and magnitude of strain hardening in uniaxial extension appear to be related to the onset for the development of melt flow instabilities under capilla.Y flow. For a better understanding of the role of the extensional properties (name.Y that of a pure.Y elastic instabili.Y) the Henc.Y strain to failure was also determined and correlated to the observed flow instabilities. Time resolution of the capilla.Y rheometer was improved .Y a factor of 1000, pressure resolution .Y a factor of 100 compared to the original set-up.► Cite this publication as follows:

Filipe S, Becker A, Barroso VC, Wilhelm M: Evaluation of melt flow instabilities of high-density polyethylenes via an optimised method for detection and analysis of the pressure fluctuations in capillary rheometry, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 23345.

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Bares V, Chara Z, Takeda Y: 6th International Symposium on Ultrasonic Doppler Methods for Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Engineering (6 ISUD), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 46.

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Yeo LY, Prakash-Jagadeeshan R, Friend JR: Complex Fluids and Microfluidics Workshop 2008 (CFMW08), Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 44.Jan Mewis

Short course on Suspension Rheology JCR

Appl. Rheol.19:1 (2009) 43-43 ►

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Mewis J: Short course on Suspension Rheology JCR, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 43.

It is observed that, although consisting on ve.Y different formulations, the rheological properties of filled po.Yurethane adhesives m.Y be rescaled onto simple master curves, and described with a small number of parameters: a.Yield stress, a low frequen.Y elastic modulus and a characteristic time of flow. As a consequence, ve.Y simple and qualitative measurements of their deformations, such as the Dog Tail Test, m.Y be used to deduce these parameters. .Y comparing the values obtained from Dog Tail Test measurements to well-controlled rheological measurements and to finite element computation, we show that such a simple and qualitative test m.Y be used as a tool to measure both the.Yield stress and the elastic modulus of high.Y viscoelastic .Ystems► Cite this publication as follows:

Lootens D, Jousset P, Dagallier C, Hebraud P, Flatt R: The ''Dog Tail Test'': a quick and dirty measure of yield stress. Application to polyurethane adhesives, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 13726.

A .Ystematic approach for collecting data from a torque rheometer is described, and the Bousmina et al. model is evaluated for HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE/filler composites. The torque rheometer results are in good agreement to capilla.Y and parallel plate viscometer measurements for neat po.Ymers, when the torque values measured are corrected for the temperature rise due to viscous dissipation. For the composites, the torque and capilla.Y results virtual.Y coincide, but the viscosities are lower than those measured with the parallel plate instrument, in oscillato.Y mode, because the Cox-Merz rule is not valid. Although there are some limitations at high shear rates, due to viscous dissipation, the present work provides a proof and a methodolo.Y for the practical utili.Y of torque rheometers for viscosi.Y measurement in high.Y viscous .Ystems.► Cite this publication as follows:

Santi CR, HageJr E, Correa CA, Vlachopoulos J: Torque Viscometry of Molten Polymers and Composites, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 13148.

In the present stu.Y,we investigate the behaviour of the human blood in a stenosed blood vessel. The human blood is studied as a Newtonian as well as non-Newtonian fluid. We consider three rheological models of the shear-thinning non- Newtonian models and compare them with the Newtonian model. The blood flow through a stenosed blood vessel is studied numerical.Y .Y solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equation along with the continui.Y equation and particular rheological model. Distribution of veloci.Y, pressure,wall shear stresses and flow recirculation characteristics are determined for two time steps of the cardiac .Ycle. Present results indicate a significant influence of the shear-thinning viscous behaviour of a human blood on the most important hemo.Ynamic parameters that pl.Y a k.Y role in formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Last but not least, a .Ystematic grid refinement ana.Ysis as well as numerical accura.Y stu.Y IS performed and present numerical results m.Y be treated as the benchmark.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ternik P, Marn J: Numerical study of blood flow in stenotic artery, Appl. Rheol. 19 (2009) 13060.Horst Henning Winter

Bringing Eureka into Rheology at ARC08

Appl. Rheol.18:6 (2008) 380-381 ►

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Winter HH: Bringing Eureka into Rheology at ARC08, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 380.

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Wilson HJ, Lettinga MP: Euromech Colloquium no. 492: Shear-banding Phenomena in Entangled Systems, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 378.

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Greim M: Rheology of Building Materials, 17th Conference, Univ. of Appl. Science, Regensburg, Mar 2008, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 375.

This is a stu.Y of three-phase foam rheolo.Y to quali.Y penetration in to backing webs during frothed carpet compounds applications.Transient viscosi.Y as a function of shear rate under a short time period is proposed to characterize flow of these compounds in response to a rapid.Y changing shear field during their application.We developed a fluid .Ynamic model that predicts the shear and pressure distributions in the compound during its processing in a metering nip based on process parameters and rheological results.We tested frothed compound formulations that are empirical.Y known to be "penetrating" and "non-penetrating" based on the choice of soap (frothing surfactant). Formulated at the same froth densi.Y, penetrating to carpet backing compounds had large froth bubbles, relative.Y low transient shear viscosi.Y and showed increasing foam breakdown due to shear when compared to non-penetrating compounds. Such frothed compounds readi.Y collapse under shear and have relative.Y low .Ynamic stabili.Y, so the transition from a three-phased (air/aqueous/solid) to a twophased (water/solid) .Ystem occurs much easier and faster during application. The model predicts the shear rate development and a small difference in the pressure distributions in the applicator nip between these formulations, but reduction in drainage for the non-penetrating formulation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Triantafillopoulos N, Schreiner B, Vaughn J: Latex Carpet Compound Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 64250.

Two approaches for determining the entrance pressure drop in capilla.Y rheomet.Y were compared with low-densi.Y po.Yet.Ylene and po.Ys.Yrene melts as test fluids. Direct measurements with the orifice die were found to.Yield higher values for the entrance pressure drop, and hence lower values for the wall shear stress, than the Bagl.Y correction method. This was postulated to be caused .Y the sticking of the melt to the wall of the outlet region of the orifice die. The additional pressure drop created in the outlet region of the orifice die, when the flowing material fills it complete.Y, was also evaluated .Y means of numerical flow simulation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Aho J, Syrjala S: Evaluation of different methods for determining the entrance pressure drop in capillary rheometry, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 63258.

In practice, while placing concrete in a formwork .Y pumping, the pressure generated .Y the pump is not controlled. In order to enhance the safe.Y on the worksite, and in view of the current economic and ecologic arguments, it would be useful to dispose of an equation able to predict pressure losses based on the rheological properties of the concrete and the pipe configuration. This paper describes the derivation of an extended version of the Poiseuille formula, for shear-thickening materials with a.Yields stress, described .Y the modified Bingham equation. This formula is applied to flow-tests with self-compacting concrete. The results prove the applicabili.Y of this extended Poiseuille formula, showing that the flow is occurring in laminar regime, with no significant wall slip.► Cite this publication as follows:

Feys D, Verhoeven R, DeSchutter G: Extension of the Poiseuille formula for shear-thickening materials and application to Self-Compacting Concrete, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 62705.

The rheological behaviour of non-Newtonian, high.Y concentrated and non-transparent fluids used in indust.Y have so far been ana.Ysed using commercial.Y available instruments, such as conventional rotational rheometers and tube viscometers. When dealing with the prediction of non-Newtonian flows in pipes, pipe fittings and open channels, most of the models used are empirical in nature. The fact that the fluids or slurries that are used normal.Y are opaque, effective.Y narrows down the varie.Y of applicable in-line rheometers even further, as these instruments are normal.Y based on laser or visible light techniques, such as Laser Doppler Anemomet.Y. In this research, an Ultrasonic Veloci.Y Profiling technique (UVP), in combination with a pressure difference (PD) measurement, was tested to provide in-line measurement of rheological parameters. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the capabilities of the UVP-PD technique for rheological characterisation of different concentrations of non-transparent non-Newtonian slurries. Kaolin, bentonite, Carbo.Ymet.Yl Cellulose (CMC) and water solutions were used as model non-Newtonian mining slurries. Results determined .Y the UVP-PD method were compared with results obtained .Y off-line rheomet.Y and in-line tube viscomet.Y. The agreement between the UVP-PD method, tube viscomet.Y and conventional rheomet.Y was found to be within 15 % for all of the high.Y concentrated mineral suspensions investigated over a given range of shear rates.This method, if used in combination with a pressure difference technique (PD), has been found to have a significant potential in the development process of new in-line rheometers for process control within the mining indust.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kotze R, Haldenwang R, Slatter P: Rheological characterisation of highly concentrated mineral suspensions using an Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling with combined Pressure Difference method, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 62114.

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Bacchelli F, Pirini MF, Coppola S: The 10th Conference of the Italian Society of Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 320.

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Schaffler M, Miller R: User Seminar of 2D and 3D Rheology of Fluids and Liquid Interfaces, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 318.

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Mitchell G, Davis F, Vaughan A, Mossman S: 75 Years of Polyethylene: Past Successes and Future Challenges, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 316.

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Fischer P, Nicolai T: Food Colloids 2008 - Creating Structure, Delivering Functionality, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 315.

Investigations of rheological properties of ferrofluids have shown strong changes of the viscosi.Y in magnetic fluids with an applied magnetic field. The change of the viscosi.Y . the magnetoviscous effect . can theoretical.Y be described with chain and structure formation under the influence of a magnetic field. Moreover, the formation of these structures leads to the appearance of viscoelastic effects or other non-Newtonian features like.Yield stress in ferrofluids with an applied magnetic field. With a shear rate controlled rheometer . as it as been used in former experiments . the.Yield stress could not be investigated direct.Y. Therefore the results concerning a field dependent.Yield stress based on an extrapolation of shear controlled measurements. For the direct investigations of the.Yield stress, a dedicated stress controlled rheometer is required, allowing direct investigations of the magnitude and field dependence of this effect. In this work the design of the stress controlled rheometer with its main parameters has been described in detail. The rheological investigations with different.Y composed fluids show that the stress controlled rheometer enables direct measurements of even small.Yield stresses in ferrofluids as well as large effects like th.Y are found in magnetorheological fluids (MRF).► Cite this publication as follows:

Shahnazian H, Odenbach S: New driving unit for the direct measurement of yield stress with a stress controlled rheometer, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 54974.

Rheological properties of elastomeric nanocomposites with organical.Y modified Montmorillonite cl.Ys, as possible replacements or supplements to classical active fillers, such as carbon black or silica, have been intensive.Y studied in recent.Years. Possessing large specific surface areas acquired through the melt-mixing processes of elastomeric intercalation and subsequent filler exfoliation, the cl.Y particles have indeed proved to be high.Y eligible reinforcing and thermal.Y stabilizing ingredients for application in elastomers. In fact, their performance has shown to be in ma.Y respects superior to that of classical fillers, particular.Y owing to some unusual, though beneficial, exhibited properties. Name.Y, apart from uncommon.Y high surface activi.Y, manifested .Y creation of a host of van der Waals .Ype seconda.Y linkages with elastomer molecules, the main curiosi.Y of cl.Y filler is its dissipative action. Using .Ynamic mechanical functions under different deformational and temperature conditions, as means for rheological characterization of nanocomposites, the foregoing nano-scale traits are clear.Y reflected in substantial stiffness at low strains and, unexpected.Y, dwindling ener.Y loss with increasig filler content and/or decreasing temperature. Besides, rheological ana.Ysis of this kind, together with appropriate theoretical grounds, has enabled elucidation of peculiar conduct, as well as macroscopic insight into the ve.Y nature of seconda.Y interactions in elastomers.► Cite this publication as follows:

Susteric Z, Kos T: Rheological Idiosyncrasies of Elastomer/Clay Nanocomposites, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 54894.

Complex fluids exhibit time-dependent changes in viscosi.Y that have been ascribed to both thixotro.Y and aging. However, there is no consensus for which phenomenon is the origin of which changes. A novel thixotropic model is defined that incorporates aging. Conditions under which viscosi.Y changes are due to thixotro.Y and aging are unambiguous.Y defined. Viscosi.Y changes in a complex fluid during a period of rest after destructuring exhibit a bifurcation at a critical volume fraction φ_{C2}. For volume fractions less than φ_{C2}the viscosi.Y remains finite in the limittto infni.Y. For volume fractions above critical the viscosi.Y grows without limit, so aging occurs at rest. At constant shear rate there is no bifurcation, whereas under constant shear stress the model predicts a new bifurcation in the viscosi.Y at a critical stress σ_{B}, identical to the.Yield stress σ.Yobserved under stea.Y conditions. The divergence of the viscosi.Y for σ ≤ σ_{B}is best defined as aging. However, for σ > σ_{B}, where the viscosi.Y remains finite, it seems preferable to use the concepts of restructuring and destructuring, rather than aging and rejuvenation. Nevertheless, when a stress σ_{A}(≤ σ_{B}) is applied during aging, slower aging is predicted and discussed as true rejuvenation. Plastic behaviour is predicted under stea.Y conditions when σ > σ_{B}. The Herschel-Bulkl.Y model fits the flow curve for stresses close to σ_{B}, whereas the Bingham model gives a better fit for σ >> σ_{B}. Final.Y, the model's predictions are shown to be consistent with experimental data from the literature for the transient behaviour of laponite gels.► Cite this publication as follows:

Quemada D: Aging, rejuvenation, and thixotropy in complex fluids: Time-dependence of the viscosity at rest and under constant shear rate or shear stress, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 53298.

Investigations on the behaviour of superparamagnetic nanoparticles under the influence of a high gradient magnetic field in the vascular .Ystem is required for a better under-standing of magnetic drug targeting. The influence on the particle transport of the non-Newtonian and Newtonian properties of blood as well as the influence of the heart rate was therefore studied. An ana.Ytical model was developed and the calculation of particle trajectories is presented and evaluated.The results show that the non-Newtonian properties of the blood have a positive influence on the number of retended nanoparticles. The calculations also showed that the number of retained nanoparticles was lower in oscillato.Y flow profile than in stea.Y flow. The influence of the heart rate can be neglected for Womersl.Y numbers smaller than 1.5.► Cite this publication as follows:

Gleich B, Weyh T, Wolf B: Magnetic Drug Targeting: an analytical model for the influence of blood properties on particle trajectories, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 52023.

Water soluble po.Ymers such as cellulosic or starch ethers are often included in the mix-design of Self Compacting Concretes (SCCs) in order to improve their stabili.Y and robustness. The stabili.Y, including resistance to liquid-solid separation and sedimentation, m.Y be attributed to the increase of the viscosi.Y of the liquid phase due to the thickening effect of the po.Ymer. The later is then referred to as a Viscosi.Y-Modi.Ying Admixture (VMA). In the present stu.Y, we consider the influence of VMAs on the rheological properties of the material at cement scale level. In particular, the change in the thixotropic properties of the cement paste due to the inclusion of VMA is investigated. It is found that addition of VMA significant.Y enhances rebuild-up kinetics at rest following shearing at high shear rate. The influence of VMA on the stea.Y state rheological properties is also considered. As reported in the literature, the.Yield stress is found to monotonical.Y increase with VMA content, while the consisten.Y presents a minimum indicating the existence of an optimum value of the VMA for which the workabili.Y of the cement paste is maximum.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bouras R, Chaouche M, Kaci S: Influence of Viscosity-Modifying Admixtures on the Thixotropic Behaviour of Cement Pastes, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 45604.

In the present stu.Y, an evolution equation for the Cauc.Y stress tensor is proposed to take elastic, viscous and plastic characteristics of complex fluids simultaneous.Y into account. In particular, .Ypoplastici.Y is incorporated to account for the plastic features. The stress model is applied to investigate time-dependent flows of an elasto- visco-plastic fluid driven .Y an oscillating bounda.Y with/without an additional stationa.Y bounda.Y to stu.Y the .Yclic responses and the model performance. Numerical simulations show that while different degrees of elastic and viscous effects can be captured .Y va.Ying the model parameters, plastic deformation pl.Ys a significant role in the veloci.Y distribution, and can be simulated appropriate.Y .Y use of .Ypoplastici.Y. The stress model is capable of accounting for the combined elastic, viscous and plastic features of complex materials in transient motions, and applications m.Y be found in geomorphic fluid motions like granular and debris flows, and flows involving po.Ymers.► Cite this publication as follows:

Fang C, Lee C: Unsteady parallel flows of an elasto-visco-hypoplastic fluid with oscillating boundary, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 45001.

The.Yield stresses of five samples (two high.Y concentrated emulsions, two Kaolin dispersions and m.Yonnaise) were determined in two w.Ys. In one case, stea.Y shear experiments were performed over a range of incremental.Y decreasing shear rates. The resulting flow curves, plotted as shear stress against shear rate, clear.Y showed the existence of a.Yield stress for each sample, the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model being fitted to obtain values. In the second case, oscillato.Y amplitude sweeps were performed at three frequencies, and the ..Ynamic yield stress. was defined as the stress at which deviation from lineari.Y occurred; this procedure has often been used to determine the.Yield stress of emulsions. It was found that the .Ynamic.Yield stress is frequen.Y dependent, and cannot therefore be thought of as p.Ysical.Y meaningful material proper.Y. At no frequen.Y did the .Ynamic.Yield stress correlate with the.Yield stress obtained from the flow curves.► Cite this publication as follows:

Masalova I, Malkin AY, Foudazi R: Yield stress as measured in steady shearing and in oscillations, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 44790.

The main characteristics of geological flows such as debris flows, avalanches and lahars is due to the relative importance of viscous versus inertial forces in the momentum balance.This paper considers the motion generated .Y the collapse of a damretaining mud, itself modeled as a power-law fluid. The equation of motion is derived in a non-dimensional form and solved ana.Ytical.Y with the shallow-water assumption in a d.Y and smooth horizontal channel. Notab.Y indicated are flow regimes and the effect of the reservoir length as well as the effect of mud rheolo.Y on flow development. Then, a parametric stu.Y of this model is produced and the effect of mud shear-thinning on flow development is pointed out.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nsom B, Ravelo B, Ndong W: Flow regimes in viscous horizontal dam-break flow of clayous mud, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 43577.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2008 - Feb 2009, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 258.

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Handge UA: Symposium Rheology, Structure and Dynamics of Complex Fluids, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 249.

Technical fibre flows are normal.Y floc.Y but have theoretical.Y main.Y been treated as individual fibre flows. The reason for this can on.Y be understood through the subject's historic development. In Part 1 of this investigation the origin of fibre flow research was traced to the beginning of the 19th centu.Y, and was followed through its formative.Years at the first half of the 20th centu.Y up to about WWII. This second and final part takes us up to about the 1960s when the present main theoretical research tradition had been firm.Y established. An example of an alternative approach is given. Final.Y, some suggestions for future work are advanced. In Appendix methods of characterising the inner geomet.Y of technical fibre suspensions are discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bjorkman U: The Nonlinear History of Fibre Flow Research: Part 2. Continuation, Reflections and Suggestion, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 34694.

A methodolo.Y is presented to invert the flow equation of a Herschel-Bulkl.Y fluid in Couette concentric .Ylinder geomet.Y, thus enabling simultaneous computation of the true shear rates, Γ_{HB}, and of the three Herschel-Bulkl.Y rheological parameters. The errors made when these rheological parameters are computed using Newtonian shear rates, Γ_{N}, as it is normal practice .Y research and indust.Y personnel, can then be estimated. Quantification of these errors has been performed using narrow gap viscometer data from literature, with most of them taken with oil-field rheometers. The results indicate that significant differences exist between the.Yield stress and the flow behavior index computed using Γ_{HB}versus the parameters obtained using Γ_{N}and this is an outcome of the higher Γ_{HB}values. Predicted true shear rates and rheological parameters are in ve.Y good agreement with results reported .Y other investigators, who have followed different approaches to invert the flow equation, both for.Yield-pseudoplastic and power-law fluids.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kelessidis V, Maglione R: Shear rate corrections for Herschel-Bulkley fluids in Couette geometry , Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 34482.

A new procedure is described to convert the vane torque and rotational veloci.Y data into shear stress vs shear rate relationships. The basis of the procedure consists in considering local.Y the sheared material as a Bingham fluid and computing a characteristic shear rate from Couette analo.Y. The approach is first applied to experimental vane data of Newtonian fluid, then used to process vane experimental data of non-Newtonian and.Yield stress materials. Results, which are favourab.Y compared with torsional flow, show that the approach correct.Y predicts the rheological behaviour of the materials investigated.► Cite this publication as follows:

Estelle P, Lanos C, Perrot A, Amziane S: Processing the vane shear flow data from Couette analogy, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 34037.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Cox S, Neethling S, Wilson HJ: British Society of Rheology mid-winter meeting on The Rheology of Foams and Emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 193.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Schneider S: Methods to characterize electrorheological suspensions in consideration of the temperature influence (PhD thesis summary), Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 148.John Embery

UK Polymer Showcase 2007 - Innovative Materials

Appl. Rheol.18:2 (2008) 125-126 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Embery J: UK Polymer Showcase 2007 - Innovative Materials, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 125.Martin Zatloukal

Novel Trends in Rheology II

Appl. Rheol.18:2 (2008) 124-124 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Zatloukal M: Novel Trends in Rheology II, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 124.

Technical fibre flows are normal.Y floc.Y, but have theoretical.Y main.Y been treated as individual fibre flows. The reason for this can on.Y be understood in the context of historic development. In Part 1 of this historic investigation the roots of fibre flow research are traced to the beginning of the 19th centu.Y.The subsequent development is followed through its formative period in the first half of the 20th centu.Y up to about WW2. Part 2 will continue up to about 1960s when the present main tradition had been well established. In Part 2, an example of an alternative approach will also be given, and some proposals for future development presented.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bjorkman U: The Nonlinear History of Fibre Flow Research: Part 1. Background and Beginning, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 23974.

Electrorheological fluids (ERF) change viscosi.Y when an electric field is applied. A special .Ype of ERF consists of po.Yurethane particles which are doped with Li^{+}and/or Zn^{2+}cations and suspended in silicone oil.This article gives an overview of the temperature dependent behavior of the ER effect for these fluids and describes the basic principles how this is explained. Chemical ana.Yses provide information as a basis for a polarization model in several dimensions down to molecular size.► Cite this publication as follows:

Schneider S, Eibl S: Review of the Electrorheological (ER) Effect of Polyurethane-based ER Fluids, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 23956.

Rheological behavior of asphalt is strong.Y affected .Y loading conditions, temperature and environment. One of the main challenges in understanding the rheolo.Y of asphalt is to relate the chemical constituents and the micro-structure of asphalt on one hand to its rheological behavior on the other hand. In this work, nonlinear rheological behaviour of asphalt was investigated using a structural rheological model. A first order kinetic equation to describe structural changes in asphalt has been incorporated with the nonlinear rheological model of White- Metzner. The resulting set of governing equations was solved numerical.Y to describe the rheolo.Y of asphalts. Different modes of rheological testing and asphalts with different compositions were considered. An ana.Ysis and comparison of model behaviour with experimental data from the literature is carried out in both stress growth at constant shear rate and oscillato.Y shear modes. A strate.Y is proposed for the estimation and tuning of the model parameters based on available experimental data and literature. Qualitative.Y, the model can capture the rheological behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids such as asphalt under different modes of rheological testing. Quantitative ana.Ysis from this work shows that the model describes the rheological behaviour of asphalt for the temperature range of 20 - 60^{o}C. It is demonstrated that a single set of equations tuned with the stea.Y shear experimental data can be used to predict the nonlinear rheological behaviour of asphalts. In addition, it is shown that the model parameters can be related to the chemical composition of asphalts.► Cite this publication as follows:

Vijay R, Deshpande AP, Varughese S: Nonlinear rheological modeling of asphalt using White-Metzner model with structural parameter variation based asphaltene structural build-up and breakage, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 23214.

Small micellar casein particles were formed in aqueous solutions of native casein after addition of po.Yphosphate. These socalled submicelles aggregated and gelled with a rate that increased with increasing temperature.The evolution of the viscosi.Y during this process was determined at constant shear rate or shear stress. When app.Ying a small shear stress the viscosi.Y increased strong.Y until the shear rate became immeasurab.Y slow, but when the applied shear stress exceeded a critical value (σ_{c}) the aggregates broke up and the viscosi.Y reached a maximum. At longer times the viscosi.Y decreased rapid.Y at first, followed .Y a ve.Y slow decrease. sc was independent of the shear rate and heating temperature, but increased strong.Y with increasing casein concentration.At constant shear rate the stress remained close to σ_{c}, but fluctuated irregular.Y.After cessation of shear flow, gels were formed rapid.Y. Oscillation shear measurements for σ > σ_{c}showed a strong.Y non-linear response at the time of maximum viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Pitkowski A, Nicolai T, Durand D: Shear flow and large amplitude oscillation shear study of solutions of aggregating micellar casein particles, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 23050.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2008 - Aug 2008, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 60.Meta Skumavc

European Polymer Congress 2007

Appl. Rheol.18:1 (2008) 51-52 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Skumavc M: European Polymer Congress 2007, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 51.Christophe Ancey

Visco-plastic fluids: from Theory to Application

Appl. Rheol.18:1 (2008) 48-50 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Ancey C: Visco-plastic fluids: from Theory to Application, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 48.

The new ARES-G2 is a rotational rheometer based on the unique concept of separation of motor and force/torque transducer. Designed from ground up, a k.Y objective of the development project was to provide increased flexibili.Y designing rheological experiments and to allow new and application specific test procedures. In order to achieve these goals all major instrument components such as the actuator, transducer, stage, data acquisition, environmental .Ystems, etc. are developed as independent intelligent sub-assemblies, controlled .Y a central processor. The rigid firmware based on fixed test modes is replaced with a versatile user interface allowing a free combination of instrument instructions, which are downloaded to the instrument prior testing. Fast digital signal processing replaces the analog electronics providing faster, more accurate motor and transducer control and allowing the implementation of full stress control in oscillation and transient test modes. Significant.Y improved data acquisition with 5 fast data channels in all test modes enables SAOS and enhanced LAOS testing with complete support of higher harmonic ana.Ysis.► Cite this publication as follows:

Franck A: A new generation of separate motor and transducer rheometers, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 44.

We show that the rheological characteristics of a fresh cement paste can be determined from inclined plane tests.The apparent flow curve measured from inclined plane flows coincides with the apparent rheogram from classical rheometer tests and the flow curve obtained from local Couette flow measurements with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In order to describe the thixotropic properties of these fluids we suggest to use a simple model, the four parameters of which m.Y be determined from specific, practical, inclined plane experiments.► Cite this publication as follows:

Jarny S, Roussel N, LeRoy R, Coussot P: Thixotropic behavior of fresh cement pastes from inclined plane flow measurements, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 14251.

a new technique of reconstruction of the veloci.Y profile, the behaviour can be modelled .Y a unique equation including liquid and solid components but also a structural parameter. It is also rigorous.Y demonstrated that the on.Y one rheological behaviour in stea.Y state in the liquid regime is a truncated power-law which can be defined on.Y for a shear rate and a shear stress higher than a critical value. Moreover, the critical shear rate and shear stress increase with the solid content and depend on the fractal dimension of flocs which implies that thixotropic effects are all the more important as the sludge is thick and fresh.► Cite this publication as follows:

Baudez J-C: Physical aging and thixotropy in sludge rheology, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 13495.

The rheologies of a shear-frozen commercial ice cream and of a model ice cream foam have been studied at - 5^{o}C and other temperatures .Y capilla.Y rheomet.Y on a commercial manufacturing line and in a Multi-Pass Rheometer, respective.Y. Both were 50 vol% aerated emulsions of milk fat in an aqueous sucrose solution, but the model ice cream foam was without ice c.Ystals. The data indicate significant wall slip effects which have been ana.Ysed using the classical Moon.Y method, the Jastrzebski variant and one based on Tikhonov regularization. The latter approach.Yields 'most convincing results', including a previous.Y unreported region of shear thickening at ve.Y high shear rates of ~ 3000 s^{-1}for the model ice cream foam, when the capilla.Y number indicates a possible transition in the flow around bubbles from domination .Y interfacial effects to viscous effects. Viscous heating effects were observed at relative.Y low shear rates for the commercial ice cream, but not the model ice cream foam. This was attributed to the melting of the ice c.Ystal phase in the commercial ice cream, and, hence, absent from the model ice cream foam.► Cite this publication as follows:

Martin P, Odic K, Russell A: Rheology of commercial and model ice creams, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 12913.

Effectiveness of drag reduction .Y small addition of a surfactant in the turbulent flow of water depends on the structure and concentration of the additive, temperature of the solution and turbulence intensi.Y, possible flow disturbance .Y a mechanical obstacle and the content of ions in water, but also on the age of the surfactant solution.We show how important aging effects are in connection with total surfactant concentration, in particular how rheological parameters of the drag reducing solution change with time.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mik V, Myska J, Chara Z, Stern P: Durability of a Drag Reducing Solution, Appl. Rheol. 18 (2008) 12421.

Genetic Programming (GP) is used to estimate the functions that describe the torque and the force acting on the external sphere due to stea.Y state motion of viscoelastic fluid between two eccentric spheres. The GP has been running based on experimental data of the torque at different eccentricities to produce torque for each target eccentrici.Y. The angular veloci.Y of the inner sphere and the eccentrici.Y of the two spheres have been used as input variables to find the discovered functions. The experimental, calculated and predicted torque and forces are compared. The discovered function shows a good match to the experimental data.We find that the GP technique is a good new mechanism of determination of the force and torque of fluid in eccentric sphere model.► Cite this publication as follows:

Elbakry M, Radi A: Genetic programming approach for flow of steady state fluid between two eccentric spheres, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 68210.

The assumptions implicit in the simplified expressions used to convert the torque-rotational speed data of parallel-disk viscomet.Y into rim shear rate and rim shear stress are identified. The rim shear stress generated .Y the simplified expression is compared against the actual rim shear stress. The error involved is quantified for two standard rheological models and for a set of laborato.Y data. Under normal operation conditions of parallel-disk viscometers this error was found to be within the acceptable limit. However, for high.Y shear thinning fluids and for fluids exhibiting.Yield stress this error can become ve.Y large. The suitabili.Y of the approximate rim shear stress in wall slip determination is then brief.Y discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

LeongYeow Y, Leong Y, Khan A: Error Introduced by a Popular Melthod of Processing Parallel-Disk Viscometry Data, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 66415.

The .Ynamic viscoelastic properties of liquid c.Ystalline po.Ymer (LCP) and po.Yet.Ylene terephthalate (PET) blends were studied at two different temperatures: 265^{o}C at which LCP was in solid state and 285^{o}C at which LCP was in molten state. The PET was in molten state at both the temperatures. The storage modulus, G', loss modulus, G'', .Ynamic viscosi.Y, η', of blends with different compositions were evaluated and compared. The morpholo.Y of these samples was studied using scanning electron microscope, which exhibited composition dependen.Y. A maxima was observed in the viscosi.Y versus composition plot corresponding to 90/10 LCP/PET blend at 285^{o}C. The G' versus G'' plots demonstrated the composition dependen.Y of LCP/PET blends.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hashmi SAR, Kitano T: Effects of State Change of Liquid Crystalline Polymer on Dynamic Visco-elasticity of its Blends with Polyethylene-terephthalate, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 64510.

A new.Y designed and constructed sliding plate rheometer is used to measure the high frequen.Y (210 Hz) linear viscoelastic properties of two model po.Ymers: po.Ybutene (PB) and po.Ydimet.Ylsiloxane (PDMS). Using well-known rheological models, extrapolations of the viscoelastic measurements obtained on a rotational parallel plate rheometer to a frequen.Y of 210 Hz are used to assess the performance of the high frequen.Y sliding plate rheometer. Good agreement between the extrapolated and measured data demonstrates the abili.Y of the sliding plate rheometer to measure the high frequen.Y rheological properties of both Newtonian and shear-thinning materials.► Cite this publication as follows:

Braybrook CA, Lee JA, Bates PJ, Kontopoulou M: Development of a Sliding Plate Rheometer to Measure the High Frequency Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Melts, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 62563.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Winter HH: Rheology Cyberinfrastructure for Integrated Research and Learning at ARC07, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 302.Johan Wiklund

The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2007

Appl. Rheol.17:5 (2007) 301-302 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Wiklund J: The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 2007, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 301.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Ruddle J: Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG) Rheology Workshop 2007, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 299.Mourad Lounis

Fourth International Symposium of Rheology, CIR04

Appl. Rheol.17:5 (2007) 297-298 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Lounis M: Fourth International Symposium of Rheology, CIR04, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 297.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Schweizer T: Structure and rheology of molten polymers (J.M. Dealy, R.G. Larson), Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 258.

The influence of the molecular structure of the po.Ymer matrix and filler loading on the entrance pressure loss of po.Yet.Ylene/ wood flour composites has been investigated in this research .Y means of a capilla.Y rheometer equipped with an orifice die. The ent.Y flow of talc- and glass-filled po.Yet.Ylene composites has been investigated as well. It was found that the entrance pressure loss of wood filled po.Yet.Ylene composites great.Y increased with increasing the wood flour loading. Talc and solid glass spheres also increase the entrance pressure loss, however not as much as wood flour. It was also observed that composites based on narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD) resins exhibited larger entrance pressure loss than the broad MWD and branched po.Yet.Ylene based ones. It was concluded that measurements of the entrance pressure loss reveal some interesting features of the po.Ymer-filler interactions and could provide significant insights in the processing of high.Y filled po.Ymer melts.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hristov V, Vlachopoulos J: A Study of Entrance Pressure Loss in Filled Polymer Melts , Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 57191.

Self-Compacting Concrete is a new .Ype of concrete which is more liquid compared to traditional concrete and which does not need a.Y form of external compaction. As a result this .Ype of concrete is suitable for a new placing technique: pumping SCC from the bottom in the formwork and letting it rise in the formwork due to the applied pressure. In order to understand the phenomena occurring during pumping operations, the rheological properties of SCC must be investigated and controlled. Tests have been performed with two different rheometers, which are described in this paper. For the Tattersall Mk-II rheometer, a calibration procedure has been worked out to eliminate seconda.Y flows in the rheometer.Test results indicate that SCC is a thixotropic liquid, having a.Yield stress, showing shear thickening and having va.Ying properties in time due to the occurring chemical reactions. In this paper, the time dependent effects will not be described. When t.Ying to app.Y a rheological model to the obtained results, on.Y the modified Bingham model seems appropriate. App.Ying the Bingham model results in the generation of negative.Yield stresses while the Herschel-Bulkl.Y model has a parameter with a variable dimension and has a major mathematical restriction. The rheological properties of fresh SCC can be described with the modified Bingham model. A suitable parameter to describe shear thickening is defined as the ratio of the second order term in the shear rate of the modified Bingham model to the linear term (= c/μ).► Cite this publication as follows:

Feys D, Verhoeven R, DeSchutter G: Evaluation of time independent rheological models applicable to fresh Self-Compacting Concrete, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 56244.

The elongational flow of po.Ymet.Ylmethac.Ylate / nano-cl.Y composites was studied during stressing and creep experiments using a Müt tensile rheometer (MTR). The dispersion of the nano-cl.Y was controlled .Y means of transmission electron microsco.Y (TEM) and the l.Yer distance was measured with X-r.Y diffraction (XRD).With growing volume fraction of the filler an increase of the viscosi.Y is observed under constant strain rate and constant stress conditions. The results for the elongational viscosities for both modes are consistent with each other. Furthermore, a strain softening behavior can be measured, which is the more pronounced the higher the nano-cl.Y content is. As the Trouton rule is not valid, deviations from the linear behaviour are related to an envolope curve for the elongational viscosities instead of the threefold zero shear viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Katsikis N, Koniger T, Munstedt H: Elongational viscosities of polymethylmethacrylate / nano-clay composites, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 52751.

A tank-tube viscometer and its novel viscosi.Y equation were developed to determine flow characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids. The objective of this research is to test capabilities of the tank-tube viscometer and its novel non-Newtonian viscosi.Y equation .Y characterizing rheological behaviors of well-known po.Yet.Ylene oxide (MW 8000000) aqueous solutions as non-Newtonian fluids with 60-w% sucrose aqueous solution as a reference calibration fluid. Non-Newtonian characteristics of 0.3 - 0.7 wt% po.Yet.Ylene oxide aqueous solutions were extensive.Y investigated with the tank-tube viscometer and its non-Newtonian viscosi.Y equation over the 294 - 306 K temperature range, and 55 - 784 s^{-1}shear rate range. The 60-w% sucrose aqueous solution was used as a reference/calibration fluid for the tank-tube viscometer. .Ynamic viscosi.Y values of 60 w% sucrose aqueous solution were determined with the calibrated tank-tube viscometer and its Newtonian viscosi.Y equation at 299.15 K, and compared with the literature values.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kwon KC, Park Y, Floyd T, Vahdat N, Jackson E, Jones P: Rheological Characterization of Shear-Thinning Fluids with a Novel Viscosity Equation of a Tank-tube Viscometer, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 51413.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Coussot P, Barrat J: Flow in Glassy Systems. European School of Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 228.John Embery

A Feast of Polymer Physics

Appl. Rheol.17:4 (2007) 226-227 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Embery J: A Feast of Polymer Physics , Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 226.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2007 - Feb 2008, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 238.

Rheological and mechanical properties of ac.Ylonitrile-butadiene-s.Yrene po.Ymers (ABS) prepared via bulk po.Ymerization depending on the molecular weight (M_{w}) of s.Yrene-ac.Ylonitrile copo.Ymer (SAN) have been investigated.The tendencies of attaining the.Yield stress at stea.Y-state shear flow and approaching to the .plateau. region of storage modulus at low frequencies in oscillato.Y tests were observed. Both these phenomena are induced .Y formation of the structural skeleton consisting of po.Ybutadiene (PB) particles arranged in the SAN-matrix. Growth of M_{w}of SAN leads both to increase of the .plateau. value of storage modulus at low frequencies and the.Yield stress.This fact can be explained .Y the influence of M_{w}of SAN chains grafted onto PB particles on structure formation in ABS melts because of a redistribution of the ratio particleparticle / particle-matrix interactions. The elongational viscosi.Y of ABS melts is a power function of M_{w}of SAN matrix. The power index of this function increases with the po.Ymer straining that reflects orientation of SAN chains with their length increase. The strain-hardening index of ABS melts increases considerab.Y with increase of SAN matrix M_{w}. However, it does not depend on presence of PB particles in the material. It means that the value of this index is governed .Y orientation effect in the SAN matrix.The impact strength of the investigated ABS samples is interrelated with rheological characteristics of ABS melts as well as M_{w}of SAN. The dependence of impact strength on M_{w}can be explained .Y increasing role of orientation effects of SAN chains with M_{w}increase in the copo.Ymer fibrils connecting the walls of crazes formed at impact action.► Cite this publication as follows:

Dreval VE, Vasilev G, Borisenkova E, Semakov A, Kulichikhin VG: Influence of Molecular Weight of SAN on Rheological and Mechanical Properties of ABS-plastics, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 44745.

Nowad.Ys it is necessa.Y to perform experimental measurements to compare with numerical calculations. In this stu.Y we focus on different aqueous solutions which are tested to obtain in the same time a rheological blood like fluid and particular optical properties for laser measurements (particle image velocimet.Y (PIV) or laser Doppler velocimet.Y (LDV)). Using viscometric tests we show that the non Newtonian behavior of blood is reached .Y adding xanthan gum in aqueous g.Ycerol and aqueous potassium thio.Yanate solutions. Optical properties are direct.Y achieved .Y modi.Ying g.Ycerol or thio.Yanate potassium concentrations. Indeed we proove using refractometric measurements that the addition of xanthan gum does not affect the value of the refractive indexes. Final.Y,we can prepare an optical blood like fluid adapted to cardiovascular studies .Y adjusting the proportion of the different components.► Cite this publication as follows:

Benard N, Jarny S, Coisne D: Definition of an experimental blood like fluid for laser measurements in cardiovascular studies., Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 44251.

Consideration is given to the reaction to Barnes and Walters' 4-pageThe.Yield stress .Yth?paper published 21.Years ago. It has been cited approximate.Y 180 times since then, as either a standard reference for .Yield stress' papers, or to disagree with its sentiment that.Yield stresses do not actual.Y exist, but are a useful approximation. The references that cite the paper are categorized and commented on.► Cite this publication as follows:

Barnes HA: The 'Yield stress myth?' paper - 21 years on, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 43110.

The concentration and size dependencies of elastic properties of high.Y concentrated w/o emulsions were studied. The range of weight concentration of the disperse phase was 90 - 96%, the range of the average droplet size was 16 - 20 μm, and the droplet size distribution remained unchanged. The disperse phase consists of droplets of over-cooled concentrated aqueous solutions of inorganic salts. The concentration range being studied lies above the limit of maximal close packing, φ > φ_{m}. The droplet size distribution is fair.Y wide and the shape of droplets is po.Ygonal.These factors alone determine possible new rheological effects, such as the elastici.Y and visco-plastic behaviour of emulsions, as well as the observed form of concentration and size dependencies of rheological properties of emulsions. The complete flow curves were measured for these fair.Y new emulsion .Ystems. It emerged that th.Y were similar to the entire concentration and droplet size ranges being studied. The concentration dependencies of the.Yield stress and storage modules corresponded to the Princen-Kiss theo.Y with critical volume concentration approximate.Y 0.71 - 0.74. However, this theo.Y describes the size dependence of elastic modules incorrect.Y. A new model is proposed, which correct.Y describes the dependencies of elastic modules on both determining parameters - those of concentration and droplet size.► Cite this publication as follows:

Masalova I, Malkin AY: Rheology of highly concentrated emulsions - concentration and droplet size dependencies, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 42250.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Antonova N: 2nd Eurosummer School on Biorheology & Symposium on Micro Mechanobiology of Cells, Tissues and Systems, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 167.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Miller R, Schaffler M: User Seminar of 2D and 3D Rheology of Fluid Systems, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 164.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Surface chemistry of solid and liquid interfaces (H. Yildirim Erbil), Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 129.

This paper presents a characterization of the following d.Y granular materials: s.Ya, colza and .Ye seeds. The p.Ysical properties of the grains and the materials are useful for characterizing the materials behaviour during flow, while the external conditions (consolidation) determine storage and handling conditions. The p.Ysical properties of the grains (specific densities) and of the materials as a whole (compaci.Y or porosi.Y, and critical angles) were measured. The flow functions were determined .Y modified shear box testing. Then the internal friction angles and the flowabili.Y index for each granular material were obtained. Indeed, the behaviour of a flowing granular material results from these two groups of factors and is characterized .Y the flowabili.Y, which is the ratio of highest consolidation stress and unconfined.Yield strength. In practice, the flowabili.Y index is used to classi.Y materials, so that the larger the flowabili.Y index, the smaller the bulk solids strength will be in relation to the consolidation stress, and therefore the higher the flowabili.Y of the bulk solid.► Cite this publication as follows:

Degouet C, Nsom B, Lolive E, Grohens A: Characterization of wood granules, soya, colza and rye seeds, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 36546.

Pre-thickened beverages and barium sulfate suspensions are used in the treatment and diagnosis of .Ysphagia. These liquids are labeled nectar consisten.Y (NC), hon.Y consisten.Y (HC) etc.These labels are rather misleading and do not represent the actual rheological character of the liquids.We careful.Y investigated the rheolo.Y of these liquids to assist both in their formulation and use for .Ysphagic patients. Stea.Y state flow properties, thixotro.Y, .Ynamic response, and creep recove.Y behavior were investigated for six beverages and two barium sulfate suspensions. All samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. The flow curves of all samples followed both Herschel-Bulkl.Y and Casson models. HC barium sulfate suspension exhibited higher.Yield stress, σ_{0}, and higher storage modulus, G', than their fluid food counterparts. In contrast, NC barium sulfate suspension had lower σ_{0}, and G' than some of the liquid food counterparts. Frequen.Y spectra of NC samples were similar to that of a macromolecular solution with both G' and loss modulus, G'', increasing with frequen.Y; whereas those of HC samples were similar to that of a gel with a little dependen.Y of G' and G'' over frequen.Y. Stress sweep experiments showed that the linear viscoelastic region of fluid foods and barium sulfate suspensions extended up to 1 and 10 Pa, respective.Y. Thus, significant differences exist in the rheological properties of both pre-thickened and videofluorosco.Y fluids current.Y used for diagnosis and treatment of .Ysphagia.► Cite this publication as follows:

OuldEleya MM, Gunasekaran S: Rheology of fluid foods for dysphagic patients, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 33137.

We present results from a new approach to the stu.Y of multicomponent gels, which allows independent investigation of the effect of phase volume and droplet size of the dispersed phase on the mechanical properties of the mixed gel composites. The method involves preparation of agarose microgels with different sizes, which are then embedded in maltodextrin gel matrices with different gel strengths. The effects of both phase volume and droplet size on composite properties are dependent on the phase modulus ratio. The higher the phase modulus ratio, the larger is the reinforcement effect and the effect of droplet size on mechanical properties of the maltodextrin/agarose composites. The observed behaviour was compared with literature models for the behaviour of composite materials.► Cite this publication as follows:

Loret C, Frith WJ, Fryer PJ: Mechanical and structural properties of maltodextrin/agarose microgels composites, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 31412.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Remond Y, Patlazhan S: The EUROMECH Colloquium 487. Structure Sensitive Mechanics of Polymer Materials: Physical and Mechanical Aspects, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 108.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Gahleitner M: 8th Austrian Polymer Meeting 2006. The Chain of Knowledge. From Catalyst to Application, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 107.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kroger M: Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Complex Fluids IWNET 2006, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 104.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Mitarotonda A: Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions (R. Brummer), Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 75.

Models of kinetic theo.Y provide a coarse-grained description of molecular configurations wherein atomistic processes are ignored. The Fokker-Planck equation related to the kinetic theo.Y descriptions must be solved for the distribution function in both p.Ysical and configuration spaces. When the model involves high dimensional spaces (including p.Ysical and conformation spaces and time) standard discretization techniques fail due to excessive computation requirements. In this paper, we revisit some model reduction techniques recent.Y proposed to circumvent those difficulties, exploring other new application areas related to entangled po.Ymer models as well as the use of such reduced models for treating complex flows in which the distribution function involves both the p.Ysical and the conformation coordinates.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mokdad B, Pruliere, re E, Ammar A, Chinesta F: On the simulation of kinetic theory models of complex fluids using the Fokker-Planck approach, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 26494.

We describe methodolo.Y of laser Doppler forced vibrolo.Y (LDFV) applied to texture assessment of soft agricultural products. The method is applied to a melon. The lowest frequen.Y resonant peak (mode M0) is used for corrections of the whole amplitude frequen.Y plot expressed in relation to the forcing deformation level. The main differences between vibrolo.Y in vertical and horizontal laser positions are described. Missing and/or degeneration of some modes in the laser horizontal position are explained. Peak ana.Ysis of the results obtained reveals the parameters connected with information on internal damping, i.e. internal viscosi.Y. Modulus of elastici.Y is calculated either from the peak frequen.Y of the M1 mode or .Y a new method from the M0 peak frequen.Y. The modulus of elastici.Y of the latter method is near.Y one order higher and is more variable than the former probab.Y because the M0 mode is related to p.Ysical properties of the surface of the melon in contact with the vibrating table. Fine structure of the skin can lead to possible degenerated forms with more sub-peaks.► Cite this publication as follows:

Blahovec J, Akimoto H, Sakurai N: Laser Doppler Forced Vibrology of Soft Agricultural Products, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 25111.

The rheological behaviour of frozen soils depends on a number of factors and is complex. Stress and temperature histories as well as the actual composition of the frozen soil are on.Y some aspects that have to be considered when ana.Ysing the mechanical response. Recent improvements in measuring methods for laborato.Y investigations as well as new theoretical models have assisted in developing an improved understanding of the thermo-mechanical processes at pl.Y within frozen soils and representation of their response to a range of perturbations. This review summarises earlier work and the current state of knowledge in the field of frozen soil research. Further, it presents basic concepts as well as current research gaps. Suggestions for future research in the field of frozen soil mechanics are also made. The goal of the review is to heighten awareness of the complexi.Y of processes interacting within frozen soils and the need to understand this complexi.Y when developing models for representing this behaviour.► Cite this publication as follows:

Arenson LU, Springman SM, Sego DC: The Rheology of Frozen Soils, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 12147.

The rheological behavior of a fugitive organic ink tailored for direct-write assemb.Y of 3D microfluidic devices is investigated. Rheological experiments are carried out to probe the shear storage and loss moduli as well as the complex viscosi.Y as a function of va.Ying temperature, frequen.Y and stress amplitude. Master curves of these functions are assembled using time-temperature superposition. The fugitive ink, comprised of two organic phases, possesses an equilibrium shear elastic modulus near.Y two orders of magnitude higher than that of a commercial reference ink at room temperature and a peak in the relaxation spectrum near.Y six orders of magnitude longer in time scale. The self-supporting nature of extruded ink filaments is characterized .Y direct video imaging. Comparison of the experimental.Y observed behavior to numerical predictions based on Euler-Bernoulli viscoelastic beam ana.Ysis.Yield excellent agreement for slender filaments.► Cite this publication as follows:

Therriault D, White S, Lewis J: Rheological Behavior of Fugitive Organic Inks for Direct-Write Assembly, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 10112.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2007 - Aug 2007, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 52.

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Takimoto J: The 22nd annual meeting of the polymer processing society, Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 44.

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Chhabra R, Slatter P: First Conference of the Southern African Society of Rheology (SASOR), Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 41.

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Wagner C: Microrheology and Rheological Phenomena in Microfluidics 2006 Workshop of the German Rheological Society (DRG) , Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 42.

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Cheneler D: Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity (M.T. Shaw, W.J. MacKnight), Appl. Rheol. 17 (2007) 10.

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Karam JF, Naccache M: III Brazilian Conference on Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 342.

In this paper, .Y means of Advanced Rheometric Expanded .Ystem (ARES), oscillato.Y and stea.Y shear behavior of bina.Y mixtures of a quaterna.Y ammonium based ionic liquid [Me_{3}NC_{2}H_{4}OH]+[Zn_{2}Cl_{5}]- with ethanol (EtOH) were determined at 25 C and 25-50 C, respective.Y. The effects of shear rate, temperature and concentration on viscosi.Y were elucidated sufficient.Y. It was found that the solutions show pseudo-plastic behavior at low shear rate and Newtonian proper.Y at higher shear rate. The addition of EtOH caused a substantial decrease in viscosi.Y of the ionic liquid and the viscosi.Y of bina.Y mixtures could be described .Y an exponential equation. Arrhenius Equation and Power Law equation were applied to describe the respective effects of temperature and shear rate on viscosi.Y. Activation ener.Y derived from Arrhenius equation decreased with increasing the EtOH fraction in the mixture.► Cite this publication as follows:

Li Q, Wu G, Liu Y, Luo Y: A rheological study of binary mixtures of Ionic Liquid [Me3NC2H4OH]+[Zn2Cl5]- and ethanol, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 334.

In Couette rheomet.Y, most of the current flow-curve recove.Y algorithms require the explicit numerical differentiation of the measured angular veloci.Y data. The exceptions and popular choices, because it avoids the need for a numerical differentiation, are the parallel plate approximation (cf. Bird et al. [1], Table 10.2-1) and the simplest of the formulas given in Krieger and Elrod [2]. However, their applicabili.Y is limited to narrow gap rheometer data. In this paper, equal.Y simple formulas are presented which are exact for Newtonian fluids, do not involve a numerical differentiation and are consistent.Y more accurate than the simple formulas mentioned above. Th.Y are based on a generalization of the Euler-Maclaurin sum formula solution of the Couette viscomet.Y equation given in Krieger and Elrod. As well as illustrating the improved accura.Y for the recove.Y of flow-curves for fluids with and without a.Yield-stress, details about more general and accurate formulas for flow-curve recove.Y from Couette rheomet.Y data are given. The situation for the recove.Y of flow-curves from wide gap rheomete.Y measurements is also discussed.► Cite this publication as follows:

deHoog F, Anderssen R: Simple and Accurate Formulas for Flow-Curve Recovery from Couette Rheometer Data, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 321.

The lubricated semi-.Yperbolic die has been proposed as a technique for generating uni-axial extensional flow and, hence, as a device for measuring elongational viscosi.Y. Two methods for extracting extensional viscosi.Y data for po.Ymer melts in laminar flow from this device have been proposed and are evaluated here. Following the approach proposed .Y Collier and coworkers, values of the transient extensional viscosi.Y, η_{c}^{+}, obtained from a non-lubricated semi-.Yperbolic (SHPB) die for several po.Yet.Ylene (PE) melts were found to be considerab.Y higher than values obtained .Y means of the Münstedt .Ype device. Furthermore, the values of η_{c}^{+}obtained from the SHPB die were considerab.Y higher than the strain averaged values of η_{c}^{+}which Everage and Ballman proposed would be obtained from a lubricated SHPB. The pressure drop across a SHPB die was estimated assuming resistance was all due to wall shear (using the lubrication approximation) for two PE resins. In the case of low densi.Y PE (LDPE) the values agreed to within 20% of the measured values suggesting that shear effects at the die wall were dominating the pressure drop and not extensional stresses. An ana.Ysis was carried out which showed that in the presence of lubrication the conditions for which the values of η_{c}^{+}obtained from the SHPB would be relative.Y accurate (Henc.Y strains > 5.0).► Cite this publication as follows:

Baird DG, Huang J: Elongational Viscosity Measurements Using A Semi-Hyperbolic Die, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 312.

Since its start in 1970, the international conference on Deformation,.Yield and Fracture of Po.Ymers has been held eve.Y three.Years in Churchill College, Cambridge, UK. Amongst the 'mechanical properties of po.Ymers' aficionados these meetings have become known as the 'Churchill' conferences, an event that has been established as the leading conference on its subject world wide. ...► Cite this publication as follows:

Govaert LE, Meijer HEH: DYFP2006, the 13th int. conference on deformation, yield and fracture of polymers, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 290.

The current computer simulation based stu.Y aims to elucidate the complex role that the state of aggregation and morpholo.Y of the food materials pl.Ys in determining their transport behaviour. Using Brownian .Ynamic simulations, applied to colloidal .Ystems, we simulate the compression of two different dense l.Yers of nanoparticles (with reversible and irreversible bonds), at interface, at three different compression rates. We determine the desired transport coefficient for these structures using a novel technique, original.Y proposed .Y Torquato and Kim (1990). This method allows us to consider complex structures in our stu.Y, for which calculations of effective transport coefficients using conventional methods, like finite elements and finite difference, would be relative.Y difficult. We first validate our algorithm .Y comparing its results with those of exact calculations, for different regular lattices. Our results are in excellent agreement with the theo.Y. The variation in the transport coefficient of nano-particle monol.Yers during the compression, are also correlated with the build up of stress and changes in the structure of the films.► Cite this publication as follows:

Courtois P, Ettelaie R, Chen J: Numerical Studies of Transport Properties in Heterogeneous Food Systems, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 275.

We provide an overview of transient extensional rheomet.Y techniques for wheat flour doughs in which the deformation and material response is well defined. The behavior of a range of model doughs was explored with a Filament Stretching Extensional Rheometer (FISER). The measurements were also compared to data obtained with a new windup extensional rheometer; the SER universal testing platform. A simple empirical constitutive equation, which allows characterization of the experimental results with a small number of parameters, is presented to describe the resulting measurements. To characterize the relaxation modulus of the doughs, small amplitude shear tests were performed on samples that have been shear-mixed in a mixograph for va.Ying lengths of time. The linear viscoelastic properties were found to exhibit a broad power-law dependence on the imposed oscillato.Y frequen.Y that is ve.Y reminiscent of that exhibited .Y a critical gel. The critical gel model of Winter and Chambon was used as the basis for constructing a non-linear constitutive equation for the material stress .Y combining the relaxation modulus for the critical gel with a Lodge rubber-like liquid form for the kinematics. Transient uniaxial extensional data recorded from the FISER and SER instruments were then compared to the predictions of the constitutive equation. The model captures the initial powerlaw response and subsequent strain-hardening; however additional p.Ysics is required to describe the rheological phenomena at ve.Y large Henc.Y strains, including finite extensibili.Y effects and filament rupture in extensional flows.► Cite this publication as follows:

Ng TS, McKinley GH, Padmanabhan M: Linear to Non-linear Rheology of Wheat Flour Dough, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 265.

In this paper we describe the rheological behaviour of Ca2+-induced cold-set gels of wh.Y protein mixtures. Coldset gels are important applications for products with a low thermal stabili.Y. In previous work [J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (2006) 4229], we determined the state diagram for wh.Y protein mixtures that were heated for 10 h at pH 2 at 80°C. Under these conditions, the major wh.Y protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), forms fibrils. When wh.Y protein mixtures are heated at protein concentrations in the liquid solution regime of the state diagram, cold-set gels can be formed .Y adding Ca2+ ions at pH 7. We studied the rheological behaviour of cold-set gels for various sample compositions for wh.Y protein mixtures. When keeping the total wh.Y protein concentration constant, the elastic modulus, G., for the cold-set gels decreased for increasing α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin ratios, because less material (blg fibrils) was available to form a gel network. In the cold-set gels the interactions between the β-lg fibrils induced .Y the calcium ions are dominant. The β-lg fibrils are forming the cold-set gel network and therefore determine the gel strength. α-Lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin are not incorporated in the stress-bearing structure of the gels.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bolder S, Hendrickx H, Sagis L, vanderLinden E: Ca2+-induced cold-set gelation of whey protein isolate fibrils, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 258.

When two biopo.Ymers are mixed together, th.Y will normal.Y phase separate to give two distinct phases. If the biopo.Ymers are gelled during this phase separation, for instance .Y reducing the temperature, one phase is trapped in this other one and an emulsion-like composite structure is obtained. In this stu.Y, we investigated the effect of volume fraction and droplet size of this dispersed phase on the mechanical properties of maltodextrin/ agarose gel composites, where agarose is the dispersed phase. Mechanical properties of the different composites were investigated under large deformation using a rheometer with a vane geomet.Y. These composites were also observed .Y confocal microsco.Y, allowing conclusions to be drawn regarding the microstructural origins of the observed mechanical behaviour.► Cite this publication as follows:

Loret C, Frith WJ, Fryer PJ: Mechanical and structural properties of maltodextrin/agarose gel composites, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 248.

In this contribution, a brief review is given of the .Ynamics of emulsions in microconfined shear flow. The interest in confined flow is triggered .Y the increasing importance of microfluidic applications in the processing industries. In a first part, some important aspects of confinement on single droplet .Ynamics are highlighted. The validi.Y of the conclusions drawn from this part are subsequent.Y applied to more concentrated .Ystems. It is shown that microconfined emulsions can exhibit rich .Ynamics, and can displ.Y some peculiar morphologies.► Cite this publication as follows:

Vananroye A, VanPuyvelde P, Moldenaers P: Morphology development during microconfined flow of viscous emulsions, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 242.

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Schweizer T: Rheology. Concepts, Methods, and Applications (A. Ya. Malkin, A.I. Isayev), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 240.

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Rheological Societies: Society's Site Sep 2006 - Feb 2007, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 220.

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Hellenic_Society_of_Rheology: 3rd Annual European Rheology Conference (AERC 2006), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 210.

The measurement of the shear rheolo.Y of concentrated particulate suspensions is important to a range of mixing, pumping and flow operations. The use of a four or six bladed vane attached to a rheometer in an open cup is a popular technique to achieve a rheological characterisation. A problem occurs in the use of automated software with a number of rheological devices for.Yield stress materials. A torque auto zero default causes the torque at the start of a test to be ignored, and can result in significant errors and underestimation of the.Yield stress or rheological response of the suspension. The potential effect of using a torque auto zero default is demonstrated for a concentrated particulate suspension of nickel laterite.► Cite this publication as follows:

Fisher DT, Boger DV, Scales PJ: Measurement errors in yield stress rheometry that arise from torque auto zero, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 206.

The effect of viscoelastici.Y on multil.Yer po.Ymer extrusion is discussed. In these coextrusion processes predetermined patterns are created with a remarkable breadth of complexi.Y even in geometrical.Y simple dies via elastic rearrangements caused .Y the second-normal stress differences. A computational method is offered, based on the mapping method, which quantitative.Y describes the flow-induced patterns. Besides that the results are esthetical.Y beautiful, th.Y are also relevant for practice, since process and die design optimization is now possible. Not on.Y to minimize interface distortion, but potential.Y also to deliberate.Y create new processes and products based on this flow-induced patterning of po.Ymers.► Cite this publication as follows:

Anderson PD, Dooley J, Meijer HEH: Viscoelastic effects in multilayer polymer extrusion, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 198.

This paper deals with a Magnetic Resonance micro-Imaging (MRI) ana.Ysis of a.Ymptotic kinematics which is a condition adopted in some rheological characterisations. A.Ymptotic kinematics (for example the slow shearing ) aim is to evaluate material properties at ''equilibrium'', avoiding structural changes induced .Y external stimuli. Measured material functions in these mechanical conditions deal with the structure/morpholo.Y of materials and can be used to investigate the structure as a function of the state variables on.Y, as temperature, pressure and composition. In this paper MRI experiments were performed to stu.Y some shear flow behaviours of surfactant wor.Y micelles made .Y lecithin/water and diluted in .Yclohexane (reverse micellar phase L2). MRI was used as a non-invasive tool in order to follow the structural responses both during slow shearing and when the sample is stirred outside the linear behaviour range. Relations can be found between the .Ypical NMR parameters, strict.Y related to the microstructure, and the rheological macroscopic parameters as zero-shear viscosi.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Coppola L, Gabriele D, Nicotera I, Oliviero C: MRI Experiments as a Tool to Study Asymptotic-Shear Flow Behaviour of a Worm-Like Reverse Micellar Phase, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 190.

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Fischer P: Rheometry of Pastes, Suspensions and Granular Materials - Application in Industry and Environment (P. Coussot), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 181.

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Schweizer T: Einfluss von Dehnströmungen auf die Morphologieausbildung in Polymerblends / Influence of Elongational Flows on the Morphology Evolution of Polymer Blends (M. Heindl), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 131.

Liquid c.Ystalline po.Ymer (LCP) and po.Yet.Ylene terephthalate (PET) were blended in an elastic melt extruder to make samples having different volume fractions of constituent po.Ymers. Shear stress, shear viscosi.Y, first normal stress difference at different shear rates under stea.Y state conditions of these blends were evaluated at two different temperatures 265 and 285°C. The LCP was in solid state at 265° C and in melt state at 285°C and was dispersed in molten matrix of PET at both temperatures. Shear viscosi.Y of blend increased with addition of LCP in PET matrix. A maxima was observed in viscosi.Y versus composition plot. Blends containing more than 50 vol. % of LCP in the blend show higher viscosi.Y as compared to the constituent po.Ymers. First normal stress difference, N1, increased with LCP content in the blend at 285°C when ploted against shear stress whereas at 265°C this trend was opposite. The increased value of N1 with shear rate was explained assuming a tenden.Y of a.Ymmetric particles to rotate under veloci.Y gradient of suspending medium. At 285°C N1 varied with shear stress in two stages. First stage was characterized with high sensitivi.Y of N1 with shear stress, which reduced in second stage on plastic deformation of LCP droplets.► Cite this publication as follows:

Hashmi SAR, Kitano T: Rheology of LCP/PET Blends at Solid and Molten States of LCP, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 152.

In this work we investigate the rheological behaviour of macroscopic bu.Yant hard spheres dispersed in a shearthinning suspending fluid. We focus on the phenomenological stu.Y of the influence of the shear-thinning behaviour of the suspending medium on the effective apparent suspension viscosi.Y at different volume fractions. In the oil indust.Y, the effective viscosi.Y concept is wide.Y used and ve.Y useful to quick.Y characterize a change of viscosi.Y due to an increase of the solid content. Viscosi.Y measurements are compared to the effective viscosi.Y of a suspension of hard spheres in an Ostwald fluid. The power law index of the suspending fluid is shown, both experimental.Y and theoretical.Y, to influence strong.Y the volume fraction dependence of the suspension effective viscosi.Y. All experimental results are shown to be quite correct.Y plotted on a master curve, with on.Y one adjustable parameter, the maximum packing fraction φ_m. The best fit is obtained for φ_m = 0.57, corresponding to the theoretical maximum random packing volume fraction.► Cite this publication as follows:

Peysson Y, Aubry T, Moan M: Phenomenological Approach of the Effective Viscosity of Hard Sphere Suspensions in Shear-Thinning Media, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 145.

The rheological behaviour of PVC plastisols composed of a blend of suspension and micro-suspension resins in different proportions was investigated. The present work was main.Y focused on the variation of the zero shear viscosi.Y versus the concentration of the extender resin. Hence, the packing fraction Fm was evaluated using the Krieger-Dougher.Y equation. These experiments confirmed the major influence of particle size distribution concerning the decrease of viscosi.Y for concentrated suspensions. In addition, a model based on the porosi.Y model developed .Y Ouch.Yama et al. (Ouch.Yama N, Tanaka T: "Porosi.Y estimation for random packings of spherical particle", Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 23 (1984) 490-493) to predict the packing fraction in the case of multimodal lattices was successful.Y applied to our PVC plastisols formulations.► Cite this publication as follows:

Laine C, Cassagnau P: Prediction of Zero Shear Viscosity of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Plastisols, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 136.

We present a simple methodolo.Y for extending linear viscoelastic measurements of c.Ystallizing po.Ymers tothe high-frequen.Y regime, where usual.Y c.Ystallization kinetics represents an obstacle. The idea is to performrapid quenches, below the melting temperature (which corresponds to the high-frequen.Y region), account forthe thermal equilibration and the ve.Y slow ear.Y stages of c.Ystallization, and perform the measurements beforereal.Y c.Ystallization sets in, in the 'quasi-equilibrium' state. Albeit tedious, when proper.Y done, this methodworks remarkab.Y well, as demonstrated for a particular po.Ybutadiene mixture, and opens the route for obtain-ing rheological master curves in a wide varie.Y of c.Ystallizing po.Ymers.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kapnistos M, Vlassopoulos D: Rheological Master Curves of Crystallizing Polymer Mixtures, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 132.

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Handge UA, Sailer C: Disperse Polymer Systems, Dresden/Germany, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 161.

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Prasad K: Rheology for Chemists - An Introduction (Jim W Goodwin, Roy W Hughes), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 69.

This paper attempts to investigate the problem for the interaction between a screw dislocation and a piezoelectric circular inhomogenei.Y with interface cracks in viscoelastic matrix. Utilizing the Laplace transform method, we find that the viscoelastic problem is first reduced to an associated elastic one. After solving the associated elastic problem through complex function method, the solution of viscoelastic problem is obtained .Y using the inverse Laplace transformation. The viscoelastici.Y of material is modeled .Y the combination of spring and dashpot. Particular.Y, the bounda.Y value problem for standard linear solid model is solved ana.Ytical.Y. The ana.Ytical results show that the force acting on the dislocation depends on the piezoelectric properties of inhomogenei.Y and interfacial crack, and the magnitude of the force evolves toward a constant value as time elapses. However, the viscoelastici.Y of material cannot alter the equilibrium position of the dislocation. Results presented in this paper are in agreement with the previous solution as special cases.► Cite this publication as follows:

Liu Y, Li B, Fang Q: Interaction Between a Screw Dislocation and a Piezoelectric Circular Inhomogeneity with Interfacial Cracks in Viscoelastic Matrix, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 102.

The purpose of this paper was to re-evaluate the novel rheological method of Cros.Y et al. [J. Rheol. 46 (2002) 401] to characterise long chain branching (LCB) in po.Yet.Ylenes (PE) using the rheolo.Y of concentrated solutions. The feasibili.Y of this dilution method centred on knowing the class of branched material and the molecular tube theo.Y-based technique for the determination of two topological parameters (n, bU), where n is the number of entanglements between branch points while bU is the probabili.Y of meeting a branch point when tracing along the molecule from a random monomer against the direction of po.Ymerisation. This paper proposes new possible approaches to calculate the two topological parameters (n, bU) set for metallocene po.Yet.Ylenes (mPE), and their ambigui.Y discussed, as the results are dependent on the approach taken, though the previous authors mentioned on.Y one. In addition, their approach requires an input value of LCB/1000C obtained from the standard ana.Ytical solution (SEC-V or SEC-LALLS) methods, hence, until now, without proper demonstration of the potential advantage of the dilution rheolo.Y method for LCB characterisation, as the main premise of their published article was to characterise the degree of LCB via rheological measurements without recourse to other methods of LCB characterisation.► Cite this publication as follows:

Chai CK, Ang SC: An Evaluation of Dilution Rheology for the Characterization of Long Chain Branching of Polyethylenes, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 90.

This paper is concerned with a fuz.Y model developed for describing the rheological properties of lime pastes and mortars. We have identified the p.Ysical parameters on which the flow properties of these materials depend, and whose complex interrelationships make it difficult to model the phenomena using a traditional approach. The basic notions of fuz.Y modelling are described, a technique which enables different kinds of variables and other knowledge elements to be handled in a formal context that can be easi.Y computerized. App.Ying the Fuz.Y Approximation Theorem we can develop a model irrespective of whether the correlation functions are expressed in explicit ana.Ytical form or not. The definitions of the fuz.Y sets for the different variables are provided which, together with IF/THEN rules comprise the knowledge base of the model. The model is then applied to determine the plastici.Y of lime pastes and consisten.Y of lime-based mortars using ordina.Y fuz.Y inference mechanisms.► Cite this publication as follows:

Atzeni C, Sanna U, Spanu N: A Rheological Fuzzy Model for Lime Plasticity and Mortar Consistency, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 80.

Of the torsional drag-flow experiments, the hands-down winner for simplici.Y and ease of use is that using parallel- plate fixtures. This geomet.Y is high.Y flexible, allowing custom modification of plate size and material, and is easi.Y adaptable for optical use and the application of electric fields. However, its nonuniform flow is a major encumbrance for measuring nonlinear response. In 1987, Cross and K.Ye offered a simple and clever solution for this problem, which essential.Y states that one assumes the sample is Newtonian, but the shear rate assigned to the observed ''Newtonian'' viscosi.Y is 3/4ths of the rim shear rate . This shift factor arises from the use of Gaussian integration over radius of the nonlinear stress profile. Recent re-examination of the Cross-K.Ye rule indicates that there m.Y be a more accurate rule of thumb with the shift factor being 0.8 instead of 0.75 (4/5 instead of 3/4). However, for complex materials, the real question is how much useful information is covered up .Y this approach vs. the traditional differentiation of the integral to account for the stress profile. We have attempted to answer this question using a selection of nonlinear measurements on an AB block copo.Ymer solution that is rheological.Y complex.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shaw MT, Liu ZZ: Single-point Determination of Nonlinear Rheological Data from Parallel-Plate Torsional Flow, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 70.

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Ratajczak P: Third International Conference on Engineering Rheology ICER 2005, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 110.

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Ilg P: Models for polymeric and anisotropic liquids (M. Kröger), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 12.

Rheological properties of food fluids are useful for quali.Y control, texture evaluation, and food structure determination. The rheological behavior is dependent on the size, form and concentration of solids in suspension and the .Ystem structure. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) pulp was obtained from the crude fruit and treated en.Ymatical.Y, pasteurized and homogenized at 11000 rpm for 2 min and 22000 rpm for 5 min. The pulp presented Newtonian characteristics with R2 values greater than 0.98. En.Ymatic treatment under 55 C for 1 h reduced the crude pulp viscosi.Y from 1.84 to 1.22 mPa.s. Pasteurization under 100 C for 10 min increased the viscosi.Y at around 26% in relation to the crude pulp, resulting in a turbid and homogeneous product. To evaluate the influence of the insoluble solids, filtration or concentration to 50% from the initial volume were carried out using laborato.Y procedures. Filtration of the pasteurized pulp promoted a viscosi.Y decrease of 60% while concentration increased the viscosi.Y from 2.28 to 7.98 mPa.s► Cite this publication as follows:

Vendrusculo AT, Hotza D, Gomes CM, Quadri MGN: Rheology of Star Fruit Pulp (Averrhoa Carambola L.), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 26.

Conventional methods often impose difficulties when measuring the viscosi.Y of fluids containing particles or fibres, e.g. tomato paste or fruit preparations, main.Y due to the narrow gaps of the viscometer. In order to solve these problems different geometries have been developed, e.g. different mixer .Ystems and wide gap double concentric .Ylinders. However, these can not be evaluated assuming a constant shear rate throughout the fluid. In this stu.Y, three different kinds of mixer .Ystems have been studied; a small and a large paddle and a helix. For the mixer .Ystems an average shear rate must be determined and a quotient between torque and shear stress must be found. In addition, a wide gap double concentric .Ylinder (DCC) was examined and evaluated using two different methods. When evaluating the mixer .Ystems a method based on the Couette analo.Y has been used successful.Y for a number of complex fluids, including prepared sauces and fruit samples containing particles of different size. The DCC has been evaluated using a numerical as well as an approximate method, both giving results of good accura.Y. All .Ystems had the limitation that no consistent results were obtained for tomato paste. However, when starch was added to the diluted tomato paste dispersion, satis.Ying results were once again obtained.► Cite this publication as follows:

Roos H, Bolmstedt U, Axelsson A: Evaluation of New Methods and Measuring Systems for Characterisation of Flow Behaviour of Complex Foods, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 19.

The.Yielding behavior of two model electrorheological suspensions of uncoated silica particles and silica coated with po.Yaniline base in silicone oil using controlled shear rate and controlled shear stress experiments has been ana.Yzed. The results demonstrate that unlike the uncertain .Ynamic.Yield stress values estimated from the results obtained in the former mode .Y extrapolation of the unstea.Y shear stresses to zero shear rate, the controlled shear stress measurement permits to detect sensitive.Y the region starting from the initial rupture of particle chain structure in the electric field at rest corresponding to a static.Yield stress and ending in total breakage of suspension structure at a breaking stress. The latter quanti.Y can be detected with a good accura.Y and proved to be a reliable criterion of the stiffness of electrorheological (ER) structure.► Cite this publication as follows:

Pavlinek V, Saha P, Perez-Gonzalez J, DeVargas L, Stejskal J, Quadrat O: Analysis of the Yielding Behavior of Electrorheological Suspensions by Controlled Shear Stress Experiments, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 14.

The main aim of the work is to stu.Y the p.Ysicochemical and rheological behaviour of agar gel extracted from a red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa collected from various locations and seasons in southeast coast and west coast of India. The thesis also deals with the rheological studies of agar gels in presence of various additives including surfactants and fat.Y acids as well as agar and carrageenan based film-forming dispersions. The observed shear viscosi.Y values were correlated with existing rheological models. It was observed from the shear viscosi.Y studies that agar gel become more gel thinning in presence of non ionic surfactants as well as in presence of fat.Y acids. Oscillation sweep measurements revealed that the agar gel become liquid like in presence of nonionic surfactants and opposite is true in presence of ionic surfactants. The film forming dispersions prepared from agar and plasticizers had inferior rheological behaviour in comparison to k-carrageenan based thin film forming dispersions. All the agar gel samples collected from various locations displ.Yed different rheological behaviours.► Cite this publication as follows:

Prasad K: Chemical and Rheological Studies on Seaweed Polysaccharides (PhD Thesis), Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 32.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies: Society's Site Mar 2006 - Aug 2006, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 46.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Boek ES, Padding JT: CECAM Workshop on Structure and Rheology of Self-Assembling and Aggregating Colloidal Suspensions: Theory, Simulation and Experiment, Appl. Rheol. 16 (2006) 35.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Physics of Continuous Matter - Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World (B. Lautrup), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 369.

The Impact Factor of a journal is a quantitative w.Y of assessing its worth and relevance to the academic communi.Y it serves. Ma.Y librarians see the ratio between Impact Factor and price as a suitable.Yardstick .Y which to measure the value of their collections. In addition, the research assessment exercises which, in ma.Y countries, are now being carried out on a more formal basis mean that authors submitting original research must publish it in a journal with the highest perceived worth possible in order to secure future funding, job promotions and peer recognition. It has been suspected [T. Opthof, Cardiovasc. Res. 33 (1997) 1; J. Stegmann, Nature 390 (1990) 550], however, that a particular author's impact is not much related to the journals in which her/he publishes. As will be demonstrated in this letter, the impact of articles published in rheological journals is large.Y influenced .Y criteria such as length of article, number of authors, number of cited references.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kroger M: Publication Specific Impact of Articles Published by Rheological Journals, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 406.

Blood flow rheolo.Y is a complex phenomenon. Present.Y there is no universal.Y agreed upon model to represent the viscous proper.Y of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accura.Y, there are ma.Y variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemo.Ynamics quantities under ma.Y conditions. In this stu.Y, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemo.Ynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid .Ynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical stu.Y the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemo.Ynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial veloci.Y magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial veloci.Y difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geomet.Y. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A veloci.Y magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close .Ynamical.Y to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shibeshi SS, Collins WE: The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 398.

We report on the design and implementation of an evaporation blocker for cone-plate and plate-plate geometries. In addition to minimizing sample evaporation .Y trapping the saturated vapor inside a sample chamber, an important feature of the evaporation blocker is the suppression of solvent transport through condensation. Validation tests with DI-water, .Ydrogels, and colloidal suspensions demonstrate that the new accesso.Y reduces solvent evaporation significant.Y more than commercial.Y available environmental control chambers. Experiments were also performed to show that the evaporation blocker enables a varie.Y of experiments on thermoresponsive complex fluids that were previous.Y impossible, and provide new insight into the molecular organization of these materials. The evaporation blocker was specifical.Y designed for an Anton Paar MCR rheometer, but the fundamental principles are wide.Y applicable.► Cite this publication as follows:

Sato J, Breedveld V: Evaporation Blocker for Cone-Plate Rheometry of Volatile Samples, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 390.

We present a one-parameter model that fits quantitative.Y the mean veloci.Y profiles from experiments and numerical simulations of drag-reduced wall-bounded flows of dilute solutions of po.Ymers and non-Brownian fibers in the low and modest drag reduction regime. The model is based on a viscous mechanism of drag reduction, in which either extended po.Ymers or non-Brownian fibers increase the extensional viscosi.Y of the fluid and there.Y suppress both small and large turbulent eddies and reduce momentum transfer to the wall, resulting in drag reduction. Our model provides a rheological interpretation of the upward parallel shift S+ in the mean veloci.Y profile upon addition of po.Ymer, observed .Y Virk. We show that Virk's correlations for the dependence on po.Ymer molecular weight and concentration of the onset wall shear stress and slope increment on the Prandtl-Karman plot can be translated to two dimensionless numbers, name.Y an onset Weissenberg number and an a.Ymptotic Trouton ratio of maximum extensional viscosi.Y to zero-shear viscosi.Y. We believe that our model, while simple, captures the essential features of drag reduction that are universal to flexible po.Ymers and fibers, and, unlike the Virk phenomenolo.Y, can easi.Y be extended to flows with inhomogeneous po.Ymer or fiber concentration fields.## Corrigendum for this article >>

► Cite this publication as follows:

Roy A, Larson RG: A Mean Flow Model for Polymer and Fiber Turbulent Drag Reduction, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 370.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: 4th Pacific Rim Conference on Rheology (PRCR 4), Shanghai/China, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 412.Peter Fischer

Processing of High Viscous Materials, Schkopau/Germany

Appl. Rheol.15:6 (2005) 410 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Processing of High Viscous Materials, Schkopau/Germany, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 410.

The rheological behaviour of a cement paste used in Self-Compacting Concretes (SCC) formulations is compared to that of an 'ordina.Y' cement paste (OC) devoid of organic admixtures. In order to mimic the flow conditions experienced .Y the cement paste in the inter granular space of concretes, the rheological behaviour is investigated in a squeeze flow geomet.Y. .Y considering the evolution of the squeeze force for different velocities as a function of the instantaneous distance between the discs, it is found that the behaviors of the two cement pastes are qualitative.Y different. For the OC pastes, the force decreases with increasing squeeze veloci.Y for a.Y given discs separation, indicating that the material is undergoing fluid-solid separation due to filtration of the fluid phase through the porous media made up .Y the grains. Such behaviour reflects the ve.Y poor flowabili.Y of the OC paste. The behaviour of the SCC paste is qualitative.Y different. Above a certain critical value of the speed Uc, the force is an increasing function of the speed for a.Y given disc separation. Under these flow conditions the rheological behaviour of the material is that of a viscous, although high.Y non-Newtonian, fluid which corresponds to the flowabili.Y conditions of the material. For squeeze speeds smaller than Uc, the rheological behaviour of the SCC paste is similar that of OC, indicating that below this critical veloci.Y the material undergoes solid-fluid separation corresponding then to its non-flowabili.Y zone.► Cite this publication as follows:

Phan,PH, Chaouche M: Rheology and stability of self-compacting concrete cement pastes, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 336.

The propagation of ultrasonic waves in po.Ymers depends on their viscoelastic behaviour and densi.Y, resulting significant.Y affected .Y phase transitions occurring with changing temperature and pressure or during chemical reactions. Therefore, the application of low intensi.Y ultrasound, acting as a high frequen.Y .Ynamic mechanical deformation applied to a po.Ymer, can monitor the changes of viscoelastic properties associated with the glass transition, the c.Ystallization, the p.Ysical or chemical gelation, the crosslinking. Thanks to the non-destructive character (due to the ve.Y small deformation amplitude), low intensi.Y ultrasound can be successful.Y used for po.Ymer characterization. Moreover, this technique has a big potential as a sensor for on-line and in-situ monitoring of production processes for po.Ymers or po.Ymer matrix composites. Recent.Y, in the laborato.Y of Po.Ymeric Materials of Lecce Universi.Y a custom made ultrasonic set-up for the characterization of po.Ymeric material, even at high temperatures, has been developed. The ultrasonic equipment is coupled with a rotational rheometer. Ultrasonic waves and shear oscillations at low frequen.Y can be applied simultaneous.Y on the sample, getting information on its viscoelastic behaviour over a wide frequen.Y range. The aim of this paper is to present the potential and reliabili.Y of the ultrasonic equipment for the ultrasonic .Ynamic mechanical ana.Ysis (UDMA) of both thermosetting and thermoplastic po.Ymers. Three applications of UDMA to different po.Ymeric .Ystems will be reviewed, concerning the cross-linking of a thermosetting resin, the c.Ystallisation from melt of a semic.Ystalline po.Ymer and the water sorption in a d.Y .Ydrogel film. From the ultrasonic veloci.Y and attenuation measurements, the viscoelastic properties of the tested po.Ymers are evaluated in terms of complex longitudinal modulus and compared with the results of conventional .Ynamic mechanical ana.Ysis, carried out at low frequen.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lionetto F, Montagna F, Maffezzoli A: Ultrasonic Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Polymers, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 326.

Po.Ymer melts can be mixed with ma.Y monomers, plasticizers, antistatics or foaming additives. Properties of such mixtures can change during blending because of chemical reactions like po.Ymerization or crosslinking. The process m.Y be carried out either in stirred tanks, extruders or in motionless mixers. In this paper we focused on the mixing time and the diffusion time of reagent, plasticizer and po.Ymer thanks to rheological tools, and on the w.Y how rheological properties can be studied during chemical reaction in po.Ymer blending. The concept of rheoreactor and Couette analo.Y were introduced since we have a reactor on our disposal that can mix solution and measure rheological properties without taking sample. This apparatus appears to be an appreciable tool in complement of internal mixers that are specific to po.Ymer blending. For example, we show the importance of the competition between mixing time and reaction time for reactive .Ystems.► Cite this publication as follows:

Lacoste C, Choplin L, Cassagnau P, Michel A: Rheology Innovation in the Study of Mixing Conditions of Polymer Blends during Chemical Reaction, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 314.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Richtering W: Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science: Volume IV: Particulate Colloids and Volume V: Soft Colloids (J. Lyklema), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 310.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies, Mielke W, Coussot P, Mavrantzas VG, Wagner MH, Zatloukal M: Society's Site Sep 2005 - Feb 2006, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 252.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Peters F: CECAM Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Entangled Polymeric Liquids, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 240.J. Stange

Workshop Rheology and Processing of Polymers

Appl. Rheol.15:4 (2005) 238-239 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Stange J: Workshop Rheology and Processing of Polymers, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 238.

The mechanical properties of the lamellar phase, La, of the .Ystem C_12 E_4/D_2O were studied along an isoplethal path (30 wt% C_12 E_4) in the temperature range 10 - 60 C. A .Ynamic ana.Ysis was determined .Y small strain oscillato.Y rheomet.Y. The multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) (onions) were transformed .Y shearing the lamellar phase. The micellar phase was investigated .Y stea.Y and .Ynamic rheological experiments. The micellar aggregate size increases slight.Y upon heating and the transition from micelles to lamellae appears to be a first order transition. The mechanical spectra of the lamellar phase show a strong dependence of the moduli on the frequen.Y. This is .Ypical of defective lamellar phases. Th.Y are different from MLVs mechanical spectra. The MLVs viscous and storage moduli are almost independent from the frequen.Y and th.Y exhibit the characteristics of a strong gel. The temperature of formation of the MLVs phase influences the mechanical properties of the MLVs. Three different packing states of the MLVs phase were observed in the temperature range 25 - 55 C.► Cite this publication as follows:

Coppola L, Nicotera I, Oliviero C: Dynamic Rheological Analysis of MLVs and Lamellar Phases in the System C_12 E_4/D_2O, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 230.Thomas Schweizer

Polymer Viscoelasticity (Yn-Hwang Lin)

Appl. Rheol.15:4 (2005) 202-203 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Schweizer T: Polymer Viscoelasticity (Yn-Hwang Lin), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 202.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Winter HH: Amherst Rheology Course ARC2005Merging Experiment with Theory in Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 178.

The effect of high ac electric fields upon a liquid c.Ystalline po.Ymer solution, po.Y(n-he.Yl iso.Yanate) in p-.Ylene, is examined. The results show that the solutions exhibit an increase in rheological properties proportional to the strength of the field at concentrations well below those exhibiting liquid c.Ystalline behavior. The effects of frequen.Y and field strength are examined as a means to explain this previous.Y unreported phenomenon.► Cite this publication as follows:

Menna TJ, Filisko FE, Lynch RA: Effect of Electric Fields on the Rheological Properties of the Isotropic Phase of phic/p-Xylene Solutions, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 172.

Exponential integral functions were fitted to relaxation data obtained from tensile and shear loading of an asphalt-sand mixture at different temperatures. This approach.Yields a better fit to the experimental data than the traditional Pro.Y series and provides p.Ysical insight into essential characteristics of the relaxation processes that govern the asphalt-sand mixture. We expect that using this model b.Yond the time range covered .Y the experimental data would result in a significant.Y better representation of the material behavior than would extrapolation of the Pro.Y series fit.► Cite this publication as follows:

Koenigsberg W, Selverian JH: Zone Method for Representing Relaxation Characteristics of Viscoelastic Materials, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 160.

A new model for mean veloci.Y profile of turbulent water flow with added drag-reducing surfactants is presented in this paper. The general problem of drag due to frictional resistance is reviewed and drag reduction .Y the addition of po.Ymers or surfactants is introduced. The model bases on modified Prandtl's mixing length .Ypothesis and includes three parameters, which depend on additives and can be evaluated .Y numerical simulation from experimental datasets. The advantage of the model in comparison with previous.Y reported models is that it gives uniform curve for whole pipe section and can be determined for a new surfactant with less necessa.Y measurements. The use of the model is demonstrated for surfactant Habon-G as an example.► Cite this publication as follows:

Krope A, Krope J, Lipus LC: A Model for Velocity Profile in Turbulent Boundary Layer with Drag Reducing Surfactants, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 152.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P: Viscosimetry of Polymers and Polyelectrolytes (W.-M. Kulicke, C. Clasen), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 151.

The calibration of the temperature control unit of a rotational rheometer with a hood oven is shown. The calibration technique shown for a Paar-P.Ysica rheometer can be adapted to a.Y rheometer with hood oven (indirect heating). The temperature of the bottom fixed plate and the air bearing suspended cone or plate are measured independent.Y. .Y keeping the amount of venting gas constant, the set temperature of the hood oven is adjusted to reach a minimum gradient across the measuring gap. The calibration procedure is optimized to keep the oven as close as possible to the measuring position.► Cite this publication as follows:

Schweizer T: Temperature Calibration of Rotational Rheometers with Electrically Heated Tools and Hood Oven, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 112.

In order to characterise the structure and flow behaviour of model chocolate .Ystems Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and rheomet.Y were used to determine the T1 - and T2 - NMR relaxation times and their corresponding flow functions. T1 and T2 characterise the molecular mobili.Y of fluids and correlate with both the zeroshear- rate and infini.Y viscosi.Y of various chocolate model .Ystems (determined with rotational rheomet.Y and capilla.Y rheomet.Y). Based on this correlation, NMR provides the possibili.Y to determine characteristic viscosities of chocolate masses .Y means of NMR-relaxation experiments. The viscosities of chocolate masses are important process parameters, as th.Y are used for quali.Y control of the production process. An online process viscosimet.Y via T2 relaxation would allow the installation of an efficient process control and, thus, a process automation. This NMR application with comparative.Y short measuring times is especial.Y interesting for disperse .Ystems where the use of conventional rheometric techniques m.Y cause large errors. The on.Y prerequisite for the measurement of the viscosities using NMR is a previous calibration. This was performed with the help of rotational and capilla.Y rheomet.Y. The NMR self-diffusion experiments are especial.Y appropriate to characterise the influence of emulsifiers on the structure and the flow behaviour of chocolate masses.► Cite this publication as follows:

Gotz J, Balzer H, Hinrichs R: Characterisation of the Structure and Flow Behaviour of Model Chocolate Systems by Means of NMR and Rheology, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 98.

There is often a need to perform rheological tests on dilute po.Ymeric liquids at a time long after their initial preparation, for example if a more sensitive or novel method of measuring a material proper.Y (such as uniaxial/ biaxial extensional viscosi.Y or second normal-stress differences) becomes available. An inexpensive method of storing such fluids which prevents a.Y form of deterioration (e.g. bacteriological) would therefore be of great value. This stu.Y explores the potential of freezing as that storage process .Y investigating whether the freezethaw process itself leads to rheological changes. The rheological properties of three po.Ymeric liquids: 0.25 % xanthan gum, 0.125% po.Yac.Ylamide and a 0.1 %/0.1 % carbo.Ymet.Ylcellulose / xanthan gum blend common.Y used in non-Newtonian fluid flow studies were determined in both shear and oscillation before and after a freeze-thaw process. Within the uncertain.Y of the rheometer used, the rheological properties of the po.Ymers studied were found to be unaffected .Y the freeze-thaw process leading to the conclusion that this storage method is indeed a practical possibili.Y.► Cite this publication as follows:

Escudier MP, Clement-Evans J, Poole RJ: Freezing as a Storage Process for Aqueous Polymer Solutions, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 90.R.J.J. Jongschaap

Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics (H.C. Öttinger)

Appl. Rheol.15:2 (2005) 88-89 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Jongschaap R J J : Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics (H.C. Öttinger), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 88.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Bauer H, Fischle E, Gehm L, Marquardt W, Mezger T, Osterhold M: Modern rheological test methods: Fundamentals and comparative testing programme for the determination of the yield point, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 122.Peter Fischer, Martin Kroger

Patents Review (April 2005)

Appl. Rheol.15:2 (2005) 129-131 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Fischer P, Kroger M: Patents Review (April 2005), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 129.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rheological Societies, Petrie CJS, Mielke W, Coussot P, Kissi NE, Fischer P, Mavrantzas VG, Grizzuti N, Jarvela P, Wanger MH: Society's Site Mar 2005 - Aug 2005 , Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 59.D. Dupuis

39th Meeting of the French Rheology Group (GFR)

Appl. Rheol.15:1 (2005) 49-50 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Dupuis D: 39th Meeting of the French Rheology Group (GFR), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 49.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Rodrigue D, Heuzey M-C, Dubois C, DeKee D: Prof. Pierre J. Carreau 65th Birthday Symposium, 2004, Montreal, Canada, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 48.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kroger M, Moldenaers P: Rheology and Microstructure of Complex Fluid Systems. Symposium in Honour of Prof. Jan Mewis, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 46.

Viscosi.Y measurements of a suspension of cornstarch in silicone oil, at several concentrations and subject to different electrical field strengths, were conducted. An increase in the apparent viscosi.Y, in correlation with the field strength, which is characteristic of the so-called electrorheological fluids (ERF), was observed. For a given field intensi.Y, the value of the viscosi.Y increases rapid.Y in the first seconds after the application of the electric field, and then it increases slow.Y until it final.Y approaches a saturation value. This behaviour of the apparent viscosi.Y has been related to the microstructure formation due to interactions between dipoles induced .Y the electric field. Characteristic times, related to structure formation after application of an electric field, are investigated .Y means of diffuse light transmission and speckle-pattern activi.Y measurements. Two characteristic times were found that should be related to the state of aggregation of the suspended particles: orientation of the non-isotropic particles and later chain formation. These results agree reasonab.Y with that obtained from electrorheological measurements. Microscopic observations of structure formation are also reported.► Cite this publication as follows:

Alanis E, Romero G, Martinez C, Alvarez L, Mechetti C: Characteristic Times of Microstructure Formation in Electrorheological Fluids determined by Viscosity and Speckle Activity Measurements, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 38.

Commercial.Y available, blended met.Yl.Ydro.Yet.Yl celluloses with similar weight-average molar masses but va.Ying molar mass distributions were characterized .Y different techniques like stea.Y shear flow and uniaxial elongation in capilla.Y breakup experiments. The determined relaxation times t were then correlated with the absolute molar mass distribution acquired via SEC/MALLS/DRI (combined methods of size-exclusion-chromatograp.Y, multi angle laser light scattering and differential refractometer). In order to describe the longest relaxation time of the po.Ymers in uniaxial elongation via integral mean values of the molar mass distribution, defined blends of po.Ys.Yrene standards with va.Ying molar mass distributions were characterized. The obtained data was scaled via different moments of the molecular weight distribution and could be correlated with the results obtained for the met.Yl.Ydro.Yet.Yl celluloses.► Cite this publication as follows:

Plog JP, Kulicke W-M, Clasen C: Influence of the Molar Mass Distribution on the Elongational Behaviour of Polymer Solutions in Capillary Breakup, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 28.

We investigate the .Ynamics of the capilla.Y thinning and break-up process for low viscosi.Y elastic fluids such as dilute po.Ymer solutions. Standard measurements of the evolution of the midpoint diameter of the necking fluid filament are augmented .Y high speed digital video images of the break up .Ynamics. We show that the successful operation of a capilla.Y thinning device is governed .Y three important time scales (which characterize the relative importance of inertial, viscous and elastic processes), and also .Y two important length scales (which speci.Y the initial sample size and the total stretch imposed on the sample). .Y optimizing the ranges of these geometric parameters, we are able to measure characteristic time scales for tensile stress growth as small as 1 millisecond for a number of model dilute and semi-dilute solutions of po.Yet.Ylene oxide (PEO) in water and g.Ycerol. If the final aspect ratio of the sample is too small, or the total axial stretch is too great, measurements are limited, respective.Y, .Y inertial oscillations of the liquid bridge or .Y the development of the well-known beads-on-a-string morpholo.Y which disrupt the formation of a uniform necking filament. .Y considering the magnitudes of the natural time scales associated with viscous flow, elastic stress growth and inertial oscillations it is possible to construct an .operabili.Y diagram. characterizing successful operation of a capilla.Y breakup extensional rheometer. For Newtonian fluids, viscosities greater than approximate.Y 70 mPas are required; however for dilute solutions of high molecular weight po.Ymer, the minimum viscosi.Y is substantial.Y lower due to the additional elastic stresses arising from molecular extension. For PEO of molecular weight 2 · 106 g/mol, it is possible to measure relaxation times of order 1 ms in dilute po.Ymer solutions with zero-shear-rate viscosities on the order of 2 . 10 mPas.► Cite this publication as follows:

Rodd LE, Scott TP, Cooper-White JJ, McKinley GH: Capillary Break-up Rheometry of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluids, Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 12.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Schweizer T: Handbook of Ellipsometry (Harland G. Tompkins, Eugene A. Irene, Eds.), Appl. Rheol. 15 (2005) 10.Martin Kroger

An Introduction to Theoretical Chemistry (Jack Simons)

Appl. Rheol.14:6 (2004) 329 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Kroger M: An Introduction to Theoretical Chemistry (Jack Simons), Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 329.Niall W.G. Young

Nordic Rheology Conference 2004

Appl. Rheol.14:6 (2004) 324-326 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Young NWG: Nordic Rheology Conference 2004 , Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 324.

The behaviour of reverse micellar solution and reverse hexagonal and lamellar liquid c.Ystal phases in pluronic L64/water/p-.Ylene terna.Y .Ystem was investigated .Y rheological techniques. Samples with an increasing water content along the amphiphilic copo.Ymer-lean side of the terna.Y phase diagram were ana.Ysed at different temperatures and a different behaviour was evidenced .Y both .Ynamic and stea.Y tests for each considered phase, depending on the morpholo.Y of structure (micellar, lamellar, hexagonal phases). It was observed that the reverse micelles size increases with increasing water concentration and decreases with increasing temperature, without a.Y phase transition. On the contra.Y the normal micelles become anisometric on temperature, showing a transition to a liquid c.Ystalline phase. The observed mechanical spectra of the liquid c.Ystalline phases are .Ypical of hexagonal and lamellar phases according to the literature. A phase transition with temperature was found for both liquid c.Ystalline phase (lamellar and hexagonal) .Y rheological tests and was confirmed .Y ocular inspection.► Cite this publication as follows:

Coppola L, Gabriele D, Nicotera I, Oliviero C: Rheological Properties of the Reverse Mesophases of the Pluronic L64/P-Xylene/Water System, Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 315.

The term |G*|/(1-(1/tand sind)) has been suggested as one of the best candidates for the replacement of the Superpave specification parameter |G*|/sind, which has been found to be inadequate in rating po.Ymer-modified binders for high temperature performance grading. This refinement of the Superpave specification parameter evolved through a theoretical derivation based on fundamental concepts. It was shown to be more sensitive to the variations in the phase angle d than the original Superpave specification parameter. It thus described the unrecovered strain in the asphalt binders more accurate.Y, and hence related to actual field performance data. This article provides a comprehensive treatise of the parameter |G*|/(1-(1/tand sind)) giving details of its derivation, salient features that are attributed to its success, comparison with actual field performance data for validation and a one-on-one comparison with the existing parameter |G*|/sind. It is shown that for all available field data, the parameter |G*|/(1-(1/tand sind)) does a better job in correlating with the rutting behavior than the parameter |G*|/sind for unmodified as well as modified asphalts. Since it is obtained in the same manner as the parameter |G*|/sind through the determination of |G*| and d from a stress-controlled or strain-controlled .Ynamic shear rheometer, it means that no retraining of technicians and staff is required and implementation for the use of this parameter is immediate, there.Y saving enormous amount of time and mon.Y. This parameter has the further advantage of being in a form easi.Y adaptable to modeling, and there.Y direct.Y applicable for pavement design purposes.► Cite this publication as follows:

Shenoy A: A Comprehensive Treatise of the High Temperature Specification Parameter |G*|/(1-(1/tan d sin d)) for Performance Grading of Asphalts, Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 303.

A viscosi.Y function for high.Y-shear-thinning or.Yield-stress liquids such as pastes and slurries is proposed. This function is continuous and presents a low shear-rate viscosi.Y plateau, followed .Y a sharp viscosi.Y drop at a threshold shear stress value .Yield stress), and a subsequent power-law region. The equation was fitted to data for Carbopol aqueous solutions at two different concentrations, a drilling fluid, an water/oil emulsion, a commercial m.Yonnaise, and a paper coating formulation. The quali.Y of the fittings was general.Y good.► Cite this publication as follows:

Mendes PRS, Dutra ESS: Viscosity Function for Yield-Stress Liquids, Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 296.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Winter HH: Amherst Rheology Course 2004: Merging experiment with theory in rheology, Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 268.Evan Mitsoulis

Hellenic Society of rheology: HSR 2004 Athens, Greece

Appl. Rheol.14:5 (2004) 266 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Mitsoulis E: Hellenic Society of rheology: HSR 2004 Athens, Greece , Appl. Rheol. 14 (2004) 266.

Particle fluid separation is studied in the case of slow squeezing flow of dense cl.Y suspensions. The fluid pressure gradient generated .Y the test induces heterogenei.Y in the sample. Experimental water content measurements at different time points through the test allow the quantification of this separation phenomenon. The problem equations are written in the case of pure.Y extensional flow. Based on Terzaghi principle, Dar.Y.s law and a Cam Cl.Y .Ype constitutive equation, the influence of the permeabili.Y function on the predicted void ratio evolution is studied. It is then shown that a certain water amount is strong.Y linked to the grains and cannot be extracted from the sample using simple compression. This critical water amount is then taken in account in the permeabili.Y function in order to predict the compression load through the test.► Cite this publication as follows:

Roussel N, Lanos C: Particle Fluid Separation in Shear Flow of Dense Suspensions: Experimental