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Using Self-Sensing Techniques to Produce a Small, Robust, Inexpensive Rheometer
Appl. Rheol. 13:5 (2003) 242-250 ►
Self-sensing is the technique of using a transducer to both actuate and sense concurrently, therefore eliminating the need for separate sensors. A sensorless rheometer could be much smaller, simpler and more robust than traditional designs. One application where such a rheometer would be desired is the in-situ measurement of curing bone cement in orthopaedic surgery. A set of equations was developed that models the relationship between force, motion and back-e.m.f. generation for a class of electromagnetic actuators. This enables velocity, displacement and force to be self-sensed from voltage measurements only. This self-sensing was validated on a conventional linear electromagnetic actuator, and a small rotary moving magnet device, which was designed to be a small self-sensing rheometer. The accuracy of the estimation was assessed and shown to compare favourably with measured data. The actuators were then used to construct simple rheometers to measure bone cement. Rheological models were used to calculate storage and loss moduli and dynamic viscosity from the self-sensed values of displacement, velocity and torque. The accuracy of these self-sensing rheometers was verified against a traditional rheometer using a silicone fluid and a polyethylene oxide solution. The self-sensing rheometers were used to characterise acrylic bone cements during curing, reinforcing and extending upon previous results. The elimination of sensors meant that it was possible to produce a small, inexpensive rheometer with a very simple structure. This indicates there is potential to develop small rheo-transducers for certain applications.► Cite this publication as follows:
Hanson B, Levesley M, Fisher J: Using Self-Sensing Techniques to Produce a Small, Robust, Inexpensive Rheometer, Appl. Rheol. 13 (2003) 242.
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