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Spevacek J, Ilavsky M: 4th International Conference on Polymer - Solvent Complexes and Intercalates , Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 260.

PolyFlow, a software package based on the finite element method was employed to simulate the extrudate swell for polybutadiene of various molecular weight (Mw) and molecular weight distribution (MWD). We calculated the relaxation spectra for the different samples and then inserted the spectra into a standard K-BKZ constitutive model used in the numerical simulations. Accurate predictions of MWD confirm the completeness of frequency range in the oscillatory shear experimental data. In turn, the wholeness of relaxation spectra as substantiated by MWD predictions, sustain the level of confidence when using constitutive models based on these spectra. We demonstrate the importance of using the full range of relaxation spectrum rather than a short range around typical shear rates for the accuracy of the numerical predictions. We found extrudate swell ratio (ESR) to be strongly dependent on MWD and stress conditions at the die exit.► Cite this publication as follows:

Nithi-Uthai N, Manas-Zloczower I: Numerical Studies of the Effect of Constitutive Model Parameters as Reflecting Polymer Molecular Structure on Extrudate Swell, Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 252.

In the case of some highly viscous fluids, or thick pastes (such as those exhibiting high yield stress and/or high plastic viscosity), neither rotational nor tube type viscometers are suitable for rheological characterisation. Due to their capacity for generating and maintaining high torque or high rates of rotation, kneaders and mixers can often engender shear rates in excess of those of conventional rotational viscometers. Often these devices are instrumented, to measure and record the rate of rotation of the mixing blades and the related torque on the shaft turning the blades. The major problem facing users of these mixers lies in data interpretation, specifically in relating rate of rotation and torque data to shear rate and shear stress respectively. If it were possible to obtain such relationships, useful rheological data could be generated with instrumented mixers. This work outlines the experimental and analytical techniques required to convert pertinent data from the Ika Visc MKD 0.6-H60 instrumented kneader into useful rheological quantities. The kneader is calibrated using a Newtonian fluid and the calibration successfully tested with other Newtonian fluids, as well as on shear thinning solutions. The possibility of using a constant factor, a, which accounts for both the geometric complexity of the mixing chamber, and non-ideal fluid flow properties, is examined. It is shown that a is not constant, but depends on the non-Newtonian flow indices. At moderate and high rates of kneading blade rotation, calibration was not reliable and results are based on rates of rotation from 0 - 8rpm for the slower of the two mixing blades (0-16rpm for the quickly rotating blade). A number of assumptions and empirical relationships are utilised for this technique. The approximate nature of the technique necessitated by their use is more than offset by providing us with a potentially important outcome in that the capacity for collecting rheological data available to the interested scientist or engineer has been enhanced. A robust calibration technique has been developed, which is not, in principle limited to the specific equipment utilised for our analysis.► Cite this publication as follows:

Kealy T, Tiu C: Calibration of a Commercial Kneader for Rheological Applications, Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 241.

Bentonite are extensively used materials in a wide range of applications. Creep and oscillatory shear experiments in the linear viscoelastic domain were carried out on bentonite-water suspensions at different solid fractions. It was found that bentonite dispersions exhibit important viscoelastic behavior which could be represented by the generalized Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. It is well known that an exhaustive study of colloidal dispersions may require the determination of its viscoelastic properties over a wide frequency scale. Unfortunately, due to microstructure changes, the experiments are limited in time. In order to avoid such limitation, oscillatory data were deduced from creep curves - without actually vibrating the clay dispersions - because a periodic experiment at frequency w is qualitatively equivalent to a creep test at time 1/w. That is, it was possible to complete the dynamic response in the low-frequency range using data obtained from the transient response in creep.► Cite this publication as follows:

Bekkour K, Kherfellah N: Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Bentonite-Water Suspensions, Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 234.Walter Richtering

Understanding rheology (F.A. Morrison)

Appl. Rheol.12:5 (2002) 233 ►

► Cite this publication as follows:

Richtering W: Understanding rheology (F.A. Morrison), Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 233.

► Cite this publication as follows:

Stieger M: The rheology handbook - for users of rotational and oscillatory rheometers (T. Mezger), Appl. Rheol. 12 (2002) 232.

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