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Measuring the yielding of waxy crude oils considering its time-dependency and apparent-yield-stress nature
Appl. Rheol. 23:6 (2013) 62798 (11 pages) ►
Production in reservoirs located in deep and ultra-deep water that contain waxy crude oils faces a huge obstacle imposed by the low temperatures of the environment. When the waxy crude oil is subjected to a temperature below the Gelation Temperature, as in the case investigated in the present work, it exhibits a variety of non-Newtonian features: elasticity, plasticity, viscous effects, and time-dependency, which renders to this material a highly complex behavior. A crucial feature that is frequently ignored when the determination of the yield stress is being carried out, is the time-dependency nature of these materials. We demonstrate how significantly different values of yield stress can be obtained if this character of the material is neglected. We use the asphaltenes properties as inhibitors of wax formation and propose a protocol to capture yield-stress parameters. One important conclusion is that waxy crude oils can be classified as apparent-yield-stress fluids, and not (true-) yield-stress materials, with the presence of a dynamic and a static yield-stresses.► Cite this publication as follows:
Soares EJ, Thompson RL, Machado A: Measuring the yielding of waxy crude oils considering its time-dependency and apparent-yield-stress nature, Appl. Rheol. 23 (2013) 62798.
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